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Prevalence of palliative sedation in the management of refractory symptoms

Prevalence of palliative sedation in the management of refractory symptoms
  Year n Place Percent sedated for refractory symptoms Reference
Ventafridda 1990 120 Home 52 1
Fainsinger 1991 100 Inpatient (IP) 16 2
Morita 1996 143 Hospice 43 3
Stone 1997 115 IP and home 26 4
Fainsinger 1998 76 IP hospice 30 5
Chiu 2001 251 IP palliative care 28 6
Muller Busch 2002 548 IP palliative care 14 7
Sykes 2003 237 Hospice 48 8
Morita 2004   Multicenter <10 to 50 9
Kohara 2005 124 IP palliative care 50 10
Vitetta 2005 102 Hospice 67 11
Rietjens 2008 157 IP palliative care 43 12
Maltoni 2009 518 Multicenter 25 13
Mercendante 2009 77 IP palliative care 54 14
  1. Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C, De Conno F, et al. Symptom prevalence and control during cancer patients' last days of life. J Palliat Care 1990; 6:7.
  2. Fainsinger R, Miller MJ, Bruera E, et al. Symptom control during the last week of life on a palliative care unit. J Palliat Care 1991; 7:5.
  3. Morita T, Inoue S, Chihara S. Sedation for symptom control in Japan: the importance of intermittent use and communication with family members. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996; 12:32.
  4. Stone P, Phillips C, Spruyt O, Waight C. A comparison of the use of sedatives in a hospital support team and in a hospice. Palliat Med 1997; 11:140.
  5. Fainsinger RL, Landman W, Hoskings M, Bruera E. Sedation for uncontrolled symptoms in a South African hospice. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998; 16:145.
  6. Chiu TY, Hu WY, Lue BH, et al. Sedation for refractory symptoms of terminal cancer patients in Taiwan. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 21:467.
  7. Muller-Busch HC, Andres I, Jehser T. Sedation in palliative care - a critical analysis of 7 years experience. BMC Palliat Care 2003; 2:2.
  8. Sykes N, Thorns A. Sedative use in the last week of life and the implications for end-of-life decision making. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:341.
  9. Morita T. Differences in physician-reported practice in palliative sedation therapy. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12:584.
  10. Kohara H, Ueoka H, Takeyama H, et al. Sedation for terminally ill patients with cancer with uncontrollable physical distress. J Palliat Med 2005; 8:20.
  11. Vitetta L, Kenner D, Sali A. Sedation and analgesia-prescribing patterns in terminally ill patients at the end of life. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2005; 22:465.
  12. Rietjens JA, van Zuylen L, van Veluw H, et al. Palliative sedation in a specialized unit for acute palliative care in a cancer hospital: comparing patients dying with and without palliative sedation. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008; 36:228.
  13. Maltoni M, Pittureri C, Scarpi E, et al. Palliative sedation therapy does not hasten death: results from a prospective multicenter study. Ann Oncol 2009; 20:1163.
  14. Mercadante S, Intravaia G, Villari P, et al. Controlled sedation for refractory symptoms in dying patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009; 37:771.
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