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Indinavir (United States and Canada: Not available): Drug information

Indinavir (United States and Canada: Not available): Drug information
(For additional information see "Indinavir (United States and Canada: Not available): Patient drug information" and see "Indinavir (United States and Canada: Not available): Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
Brand Names: US
  • Crixivan [DSC]
Pharmacologic Category
  • Antiretroviral, Protease Inhibitor (Anti-HIV)
Dosing: Adult
HIV-1 infection, treatment

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Oral:

Note: In the US, indinavir is no longer recommended for use in the treatment of HIV (HHS [adult] 2019).

Unboosted regimen: 800 mg every 8 hours.

Ritonavir-boosted regimen (off-label dose): Indinavir 800 mg twice daily plus ritonavir 100 to 200 mg twice daily (Boyd 2006; HHS [adult] 2019).

Missed dose: If <2 hours, take dose immediately and resume regular dosing schedule; if >2 hours, resume at next regularly scheduled dose.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

Mild to moderate impairment due to cirrhosis (unboosted regimen): 600 mg every 8 hours

Severe impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Indinavir (United States and Canada: Not available): Pediatric drug information")

Note: Gene mutation and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance patterns should be evaluated (refer to https://www.iasusa.org/ for more information) when necessary.

HIV-1 infection, treatment

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Note: AIDSInfo guidelines do not recommend use of indinavir in children, adolescents, or adults due to its unfavorable toxicity profile, limited efficacy data, uncertain pharmacokinetics, and availability of alternate agents (HHS [adult] 2018; HHS [pediatric] 2018). Use in combination with other ARV agents:

Children: Limited data available; optimal dose not established: Oral: Ritonavir-boosted: Indinavir 400 mg/m2/dose (maximum: 800 mg) every 12 hour plus ritonavir 100 to 125 mg/m2/dose (maximum: 100 mg) every 12 hours; in clinical trials, this dose produced AUCs similar to adult exposure of indinavir 800 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily; however, studies report high rates of interindividual variability and toxicity in pediatric patients; several other ritonavir-boosted dosing regimens have been evaluated with supratherapeutic (indinavir 500 mg/m2/dose every 12 hours) and subtherapeutic (indinavir 234 to 250 mg/m2/dose every 12 hours) indinavir serum concentrations reported (HHS [pediatric] 2018).

Adolescents: Oral:

Unboosted: 800 mg/dose every 8 hours.

Ritonavir-boosted: Indinavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 100 to 200 mg twice daily (HHS [adult] 2018; HHS [pediatric] 2018).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; has not been studied.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

Children and Adolescents: There is no dosing adjustment information available; based on experience in adults, dosing adjustment suggested.

Dosing: Older Adult

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Capsule, Oral:

Crixivan: 200 mg [DSC], 400 mg [DSC]

Generic Equivalent Available: US

No

Administration: Adult

Drink at least 48 oz of water daily. Administer with water, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. May also be administered with other liquids (eg, skim milk, juice, coffee, tea) or a light meal (eg, toast, corn flakes). Administer around-the-clock to avoid significant fluctuation in serum levels. May be taken with food when administered in combination with ritonavir.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Drink plenty of water daily to minimize risk of nephrolithiasis. Administer with water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal; may administer with other liquids (ie, skim milk, coffee, tea, juice) or a light snack (ie, dry toast with jelly or cornflakes with skim milk). May administer with food if taken in combination with ritonavir (ie, meal restrictions are not required). If coadministered with didanosine, give at least 1 hour apart on an empty stomach. Administer every 8 hours around-the-clock to avoid significant fluctuation in serum levels.

Use: Labeled Indications

HIV-1 infection: Treatment of HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Note: In the US, indinavir is no longer recommended for use in the treatment of HIV (HHS [adult] 2019).

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Indinavir may be confused with Denavir

Pediatric patients: High-risk medication:

KIDs List: Indinavir, when used in pediatric patients <18 years of age, is identified on the Key Potentially Inappropriate Drugs in Pediatrics (KIDs) list. In neonates, use should be avoided due to risk of hyperbilirubinemia (strong recommendation; low quality of evidence). In children and adolescents <18 years, use should be avoided due to risk of nephrolithiasis (strong recommendation, high quality of evidence) (PPA [Meyers 2020]).

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Adverse reaction incidences reported in adults unless otherwise specified.

>10%:

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (17%), nausea (12%)

Genitourinary: Urolithiasis (including flank pain and hematuria; pediatric patients: ≤29%; adults: ≤12%)

Hepatic: Hyperbilirubinemia (14%)

Renal: Nephrolithiasis (including flank pain and hematuria; pediatric patients: ≤29%; adults: ≤12%)

1% to 10%:

Dermatologic: Pruritus (4%), skin rash (1%)

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia (3%), diarrhea (3%), dysgeusia (3%), dyspepsia (2%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (3%), increased appetite (2%), increased serum amylase (2%), vomiting (8%)

Genitourinary: Dysuria (2%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Decreased neutrophils (2%)

Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransaminases (≤5%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (≤4%), jaundice (2%)

Nervous system: Asthenia (≤2%), dizziness (3%), drowsiness (2%), fatigue (≤2%), headache (5%), malaise (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (8%)

Renal: Hydronephrosis (3%)

Respiratory: Cough (2%)

Miscellaneous: Fever (2%)

<1%: Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia, decreased platelet count

Frequency not defined: Dermatologic: Xeroderma

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, prolonged QT interval on ECG (Poulzzi 2010), torsades de pointes (Poulzzi 2010), vasculitis (Rachline 2000)

Dermatologic: Alopecia (Harry 2000), erythema multiforme, hyperpigmentation (Terheggen 2004), ingrown nail (Alam 1999), paronychia (Alam 1999), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (Teira 1998), urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Diabetes mellitus (new onset and exacerbation of diabetes mellitus), hyperglycemia, increased serum cholesterol, increased serum triglycerides, redistribution of body fat

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal distention, oral paresthesia, pancreatitis

Genitourinary: Crystalluria (Famularo 2000)

Hematologic & oncologic: Acute hemolytic anemia (Morrison-Griffiths 1999), hemorrhage (spontaneous in patients with hemophilia A or B), leukocyturia (Delfino 2008)

Hepatic: Hepatic failure, hepatitis (Bräu 1997, Vergis 1998)

Hypersensitivity: Nonimmune anaphylaxis

Local: Local inflammation (periarthritis)

Nervous system: Cerebrovascular disease, depression (Harry 2000)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia

Renal: Acute kidney injury (Berns 1997), interstitial nephritis (with medullary calcification and cortical atrophy) (Jaradat 2000), pyelonephritis, renal failure syndrome (Reilly 2001), renal insufficiency (Viganò 1998)

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to indinavir or any component of the formulation; coadministration with alfuzosin, amiodarone, ergot derivatives (dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine, methylergonovine), lovastatin, simvastatin, cisapride, lurasidone, pimozide, oral midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam, and sildenafil (when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension).

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Coadministration with atazanavir, rifampin, and St. John wort.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Fat redistribution: May cause redistribution of fat (eg, buffalo hump, peripheral wasting with increased abdominal girth, cushingoid appearance).

• Hemolytic anemia: Has been associated with acute hemolytic anemia, sometimes fatal; discontinue if hemolytic anemia occurs.

• Hyperbilirubinemia: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia has been observed frequently and has infrequently been associated with serum transaminase elevations. Do not use concurrently with atazanavir.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves' disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis: May cause nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis, sometimes associated with renal impairment, acute renal failure, or pyelonephritis (with or without bacteremia). Adequate hydration is recommended. Risk is substantially higher in pediatric patients versus adults. Signs/symptoms may require temporary interruption of therapy (1 to 3 days) or discontinuation.

• Tubulointerstitial nephritis: Tubulointerstitial nephritis with medullary calcification and cortical atrophy has been observed in patients with asymptomatic severe leukocyturia (>100 cells/high power field). Closely monitor patients with asymptomatic severe leukocyturia and perform frequent urinalysis; further diagnostic evaluation may be warranted. Discontinuation should be considered in all patients with severe leukocyturia.

Disease-related concerns:

• Diabetes: Changes in glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, exacerbation of diabetes, DKA, and new-onset diabetes mellitus have been reported in patients receiving protease inhibitors.

• Hemophilia A or B: Use with caution in patients with hemophilia A or B; increased bleeding during protease inhibitor therapy has been reported.

• Hepatic impairment: May cause hepatitis, sometimes resulting in fatal hepatic failure; use with caution in patients with underlying hepatic disease, and decrease dosage in patients with hepatic impairment due to cirrhosis.

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

Incidence of nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis is higher in children than adults, 29% vs 12.4%, respectively. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia (incidence: ~14%) and elevated serum transaminases may occur. Not recommended for use in neonates due to risk of hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus (HHS [pediatric] 2018).

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP2D6 (minor), CYP3A4 (major), P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 (minor); Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential; Inhibits CYP3A4 (strong)

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Adagrasib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Adagrasib. Management: Avoid use of adagrasib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors until adagrasib concentrations have reached stead state (ie, after approximately 8 days of therapy). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ado-trastuzumab emtansine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. Consider alternatives that do not inhibit CYP3A4 or consider administering after CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinuation. Monitor for toxicities if combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan dose to 6.25 mg and maximum dose to 12.5 mg in any 24-period when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Risk C: Monitor therapy

ALPRAZolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Risk X: Avoid combination

Amiodarone: Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Risk X: Avoid combination

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Risk X: Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Aripiprazole dose reductions are required for indications other than major depressive disorder. Dose reductions vary based on formulation, CYP2D6 genotype, and use of CYP2D6 inhibitors. See full interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Decrease aripiprazole lauroxil dose to next lower strength if used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors for over 14 days. No dose adjustment needed if using the lowest dose (441 mg). Max dose is 441 mg in CYP2D6 PMs or if also taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Artemether and Lumefantrine: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Artemether and Lumefantrine. Specifically, the concentrations of lumefantrine may be increased. Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Artemether and Lumefantrine. Specifically, concentrations of artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the active metabolite of artemether, may be decreased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Asciminib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asciminib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Astemizole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Atazanavir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indinavir. Indinavir may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atazanavir. Specifically, the risk for hyperbilirubinemia may be increased when these agents are combined. Risk X: Avoid combination

Atogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Atogepant. Management: The recommended dose of atogepant is 10 mg once daily when coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Atorvastatin: Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Atorvastatin. Management: Use the lowest atorvastatin dose necessary and titrate carefully in patients taking indinavir. Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis during coadministration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Atovaquone: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Avacopan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avacopan. Management: Decrease the avacopan dose to 30 mg once daily during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Risk X: Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Bedaquiline. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Management: Limit duration of concurrent use of bedaquiline with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors to no more than 14 days, unless the benefit of continued use outweighs the possible risks. Monitor for toxic effects of bedaquiline, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Benidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betibeglogene Autotemcel: Antiretroviral Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Betibeglogene Autotemcel. Risk X: Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bosentan: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Dose adjustment of bosentan and increased monitoring for bosentan toxicities is necessary when these agents are combined. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of bromocriptine with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased bromocriptine toxicities and consider bromocriptine dose reductions. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bromperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brotizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brotizolam. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased corticosteroid adverse effects during coadministration of inhaled budesonide and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Risk X: Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Dose adjustments of buspirone or a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should be based on clinical assessment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Butorphanol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Butorphanol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, decrease cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) by 40 mg from previous dose or decrease cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx) by 20 mg from previous dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Calcitriol (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcitriol (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Cariprazine. Specifically, concentrations of didesmethylcariprazine (DDCAR), the primary active metabolite of cariprazine, may increase. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Decrease cariprazine dose 50% (4.5 mg to 1.5 mg or 3 mg; 1.5 mg to 1.5 mg every other day) if starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. If on a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, start cariprazine at 1.5 mg day 1, 0 mg day 2, then 1.5 mg daily. May increase to 3 mg daily Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: Avoid this combination whenever possible. If combined, the ceritinib dose should be reduced by approximately one-third (to the nearest 150 mg). Resume the prior ceritinib dose after cessation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ChlordiazePOXIDE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ChlordiazePOXIDE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cilnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilnidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Decrease the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cisapride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Risk X: Avoid combination

Clarithromycin: Protease Inhibitors may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Do not exceed clarithromycin doses greater than 1,000 mg/day in patients taking protease inhibitors. If CrCL is 30 to 60 mL/min, reduced clarithromycin dose 50%. If CrCL is less than 30 mL/min, reduced clarithromycin dose 75%. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clindamycin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Clindamycin (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

ClonazePAM: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ClonazePAM. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cortisone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cortisone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, crizotinib dose reductions are required, which vary according to indication. See full interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cyclophosphamide: Protease Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, the incidences of neutropenia, infection, and mucositis may be increased. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cyclophosphamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and clinical cyclosporine closely with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Cyclosporine dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: Consider avoiding the combination of indinavir and moderate CYP3A4 inducers whenever possible due to the risk for decreased indinavir concentrations, reduced efficacy, and development of resistance. If combined, monitor for indinavir treatment failure. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: Consider avoiding the combination of indinavir and strong CYP3A4 inducers whenever possible due to the risk for decreased indinavir concentrations, reduced efficacy, and development of resistance. If combined, monitor for indinavir treatment failure Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyproterone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cyproterone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Management: Consider alternatives to any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for patients being treated with dabrafenib. If such a combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of dabrafenib-related adverse effects. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Daridorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daridorexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Management: Limit the darifenacin dose to no more than 7.5 mg daily if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased darifenacin toxicities (eg, dry mouth, constipation, headache, CNS effects) when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Darunavir: May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Darunavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: This combination should be avoided if possible. If combined, decrease dasatinib dose from 140 mg to 40 mg, 100 mg to 20 mg, or 70 mg to 20 mg. For patients taking 60 mg or 40 mg daily, stop dasatinib until the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Delamanid. Management: Increase ECG monitoring frequency if delamanid is combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Continue frequent ECG assessments throughout full delamanid treatment period. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Delavirdine: May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: Consider reducing the indinavir dose to 600 mg every 8 hours if coadministered with delavirdine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

DexAMETHasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

DiazePAM: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Didanosine: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: Indinavir should be administered at least 1 hour apart from buffer-containing formulations of didanosine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DilTIAZem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DilTIAZem. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Disopyramide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Disopyramide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Domperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Doxazosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Doxazosin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Risk X: Avoid combination

DOXOrubicin (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Liposomal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor closely for evidence of altered response to treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dydrogesterone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dydrogesterone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ebastine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ebastine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ebastine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: The appropriate dose adjustments for indinavir when used together with efavirenz are unknown. The use of higher unboosted indinavir doses is not likely an adequate approach. Use of a ritonavir-boosted indinavir regimen could be considered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Efonidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Efonidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Elagolix: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Management: Use of the elagolix 200 mg twice daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for longer than 1 month is not recommended. Limit combined use of the elagolix 150 mg once daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor to a maximum of 6 months. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone may decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong). Specifically, concentrations of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that are also CYP3A4 substrates may be decreased. Risk X: Avoid combination

Elbasvir and Grazoprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elbasvir and Grazoprevir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased elbasvir/grazoprevir toxicities, including ALT elevations. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, administer two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor tablets (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in CYP2D6 IMs, PMs, or in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Elivaldogene Autotemcel: Antiretroviral Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Elivaldogene Autotemcel. Management: Avoid use of antiretroviral medications for at least one month, or for the amount of time required for elimination of the retroviral medication, prior to stem cell mobilization and until the all apheresis cycles are finished Risk X: Avoid combination

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib from 450 mg to 150 mg; or from 300 mg, 225 mg, or 150 mg to 75 mg. Once the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives, resume prior dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Management: Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during treatment with entrectinib when possible. If combined in adults and those 12 yrs of age or older with a BSA of at least 1.5 square meters, reduce dose to 100 mg/day. Avoid if BSA is less than 1.5 square meters. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives (Vasoconstrictive CYP3A4 Substrates): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ergot Derivatives (Vasoconstrictive CYP3A4 Substrates). Risk X: Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of erlotinib-associated adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erythromycin (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased erythromycin effects and toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Consider avoiding use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with everolimus. If combined, closely monitor for increased everolimus serum concentrations and toxicities. Everolimus dose reductions will likely be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. If used together, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. After the inhibitor is stopped, increase fedratinib to 300 mg/day for the first 2 weeks and then to 400 mg/day as tolerated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Felodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Felodipine. Management: Consider using lower felodipine doses when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased felodipine effects and toxicities (eg, hypotension, edema) when combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Limit fesoterodine doses to 4 mg daily in patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. This combination is not recommended in pediatric patients weighing 25 kg up to 35 kg. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fexinidazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fexinidazole. Management: Avoid use of fexinidazole and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor for reduced fexinidazole efficacy. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Finerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Finerenone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Risk X: Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination if possible. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is not recommended. If combined, monitor patients for systemic corticosteroid adverse effects (eg, adrenal suppression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fluticasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: Indinavir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosamprenavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses of fosamprenavir and indinavir during coadministration have not been established. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Garlic: May decrease the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Risk X: Avoid combination

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination whenever possible. If combined, monitor closely for halofantrine toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Haloperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hormonal Contraceptives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Hormonal Contraceptives. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hydrocortisone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Hydrocortisone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ibrexafungerp: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrexafungerp. Management: Decrease the ibrexafungerp dose to 150 mg every 12 hours for 2 doses in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Risk X: Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Management: Use alternative therapies that are not strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If unable to use alternative drugs, monitor patients more frequently for idelalisib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Infigratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Infigratinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Infigratinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Infigratinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Inhibitors of the Proton Pump (PPIs and PCABs): May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. Management: Avoid administration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during and within 1 week prior to irinotecan administration, unless no therapeutic alternatives to these agents exist. If combined, monitor closely for increased irinotecan toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Risk X: Avoid combination

Isradipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Isradipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Management: Limit the maximum istradefylline dose to 20 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased istradefylline effects/toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Reduce the indinavir dose to 600 mg every 8 hours when given with itraconazole. Monitor for increased systemic effects (including adverse/toxic effects) of itraconazole. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific recommendations. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with ivosidenib whenever possible. When combined use is required, reduce the ivosidenib dose to 250 mg once daily and monitor for increased ivosidenib toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid use of ixabepilone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce the ixabepilone dose to 20 mg/m2. The previous ixabepilone dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ketamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ketamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ketoconazole (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Reduce the indinavir dose to 600 mg every 8 hours when given with ketoconazole. Monitor for increased systemic effects (including adverse/toxic effects) of ketoconazole. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lacidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lacidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: Avoid use of lapatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, a reduced lapatinib dose of 500 mg daily should be considered. The previous lapatinib dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor's half-life. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets and strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Leuprolide and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Leuprolide and Norethindrone. Specifically, concentrations of norethindrone may increase. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levoketoconazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levoketoconazole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: The dose of levomilnacipran should not exceed 80 mg once daily when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lidocaine (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lonafarnib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lonafarnib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lopinavir: Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Lopinavir. Management: Coadministration of indinavir and lopinavir/ritonavir once daily regimens have not been studied. If indinavir is coadministered with twice daily lopinavir/ritonavir, decrease the indinavir dose to 600 mg twice daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Lovastatin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: When initiating or resuming lumacaftor/ivacaftor after a therapy interruption of 7 days or more, reduce the lumacaftor/ivacaftor dose to 1 tablet daily or 1 packet of oral granules every other day for the first week, and then resume the standard dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Management: Limit the lumateperone dose to 10.5 mg once daily when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce maraviroc to 150mg twice/day in adult and pediatrics weighing 40kg or more. See full interaction monograph for dose adjustments in pediatrics weighing 10 to less than 40kg. Do not use if CrCl less than 30mL/min or in those weighing less than 10 kg. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mavacamten: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mavacamten. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mefloquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mefloquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Midazolam: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Oral midazolam is contraindicated with protease inhibitors. Avoid use with nasal midazolam. Consider alternatives to use with other routes of midazolam (IV, IM) when possible. Consider use of lower midazolam doses if combined. Risk X: Avoid combination

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Seek alternatives to the concomitant use of midostaurin and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of adverse reactions. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: For treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, start mifepristone at 300 mg/day, may titrate to a maximum of 900 mg/day. If starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and taking > 300 mg/day mifepristone, decrease the mifepristone dose by 300 mg/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mirtazapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirtazapine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mirvetuximab Soravtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirvetuximab Soravtansine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mitapivat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mitapivat. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mobocertinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Mobocertinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mobocertinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mometasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mometasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Oral Inhalation). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mometasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nelfinavir: May increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Nelfinavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses for coadministration have not been determined according to both the nelfinavir and indinavir prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nevirapine: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Management: Increased indinavir doses may be needed when used with nevirapine; however, specific dosing guidelines have not been established. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

NiCARdipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiCARdipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

NIFEdipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NIFEdipine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, initiate nifedipine at the lowest dose available and monitor patients closely for increased nifedipine effects and toxicities (eg, hypotension, edema). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid if possible. If combination needed, decrease nilotinib to 300 mg once/day for patients with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML or to 200 mg once/day for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Nilvadipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilvadipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indinavir. Specifically, the risk for nephrolithiasis may be increased with this combination. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir. Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nitrendipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nitrendipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Olmutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olmutinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Orelabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Orelabrutinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Osilodrostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Osilodrostat. Management: Reduce osilodrostat dose by 50% during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

OxyCODONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite oxymorphone may also be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PACLitaxel (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PACLitaxel (Conventional). Risk C: Monitor therapy

PACLitaxel (Protein Bound): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PACLitaxel (Protein Bound). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pacritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pacritinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with palbociclib when possible. If the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, decrease the palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Palovarotene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palovarotene. Risk X: Avoid combination

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patient response to therapy closely for evidence of more severe adverse effects related to panobinostat therapy. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Parecoxib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Parecoxib. Specifically, serum concentrations of the active moiety valdecoxib may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of pazopanib with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 whenever possible. If it is not possible to avoid such a combination, reduce pazopanib dose to 400 mg. Further dose reductions may also be required if adverse reactions occur. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the strong inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use if possible. If combined, reduce ponatinib dose as follows: If taking 45 mg, reduce to 30 mg; if taking 30 mg, reduce to 15 mg; if taking 15 mg, reduce to 10 mg. If taking 10 mg, avoid concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pralsetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Prazepam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Prazepam. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Propafenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: In quetiapine treated patients, reduce quetiapine to one-sixth of original dose after starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, start quetiapine at lowest dose and up-titrate as needed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

QuiNIDine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

QuiNINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Reboxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Reboxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Risk X: Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Regorafenib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Repaglinide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: The use of retapamulin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is not recommended in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Indinavir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Rifabutin. Rifabutin may decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Rifabutin. Management: Reduce rifabutin dose by 50% and increase indinavir dose to 1,000 mg every 8 hours when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Rilpivirine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Riociguat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ripretinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ripretinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ripretinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RisperiDONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RisperiDONE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ritonavir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indinavir. Specifically, the risk for nephrolithiasis may be increased with this combination. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. For clarithromycin, refer to more specific clarithromycin-rivaroxaban monograph recommendations. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Roflumilast-Containing Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Roflumilast-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib (Systemic). Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances; dose adjustments may be required in some circumstances and depend on the indication for ruxolitinib. See monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ruxolitinib (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib (Topical). Risk X: Avoid combination

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Saquinavir: Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses for coadministration have not been determined according to both the saquinavir and indinavir prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When using the saxagliptin combination products saxagliptin/dapagliflozin or saxagliptin/dapagliflozin/metformin, avoid use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120 mg twice/day to 40 mg twice/day, or from 160 mg twice/day to 80 mg twice/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sertindole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sertindole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Sibutramine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sibutramine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sibutramine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sildenafil: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Use of protease inhibitors and sildenafil for the treatment of PAH is contraindicated. If using sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, limit the sildenafil dose to 25 mg and do not use more frequently than every 48 hours. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Simvastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Simvastatin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Sirolimus (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Conventional). Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus (Protein Bound): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Protein Bound). Risk X: Avoid combination

Sirolimus (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit adult solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily and limit doses in pediatric patients to the recommended weight-based starting dose (and do not increase the dose) when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Risk X: Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 37.5 mg daily when treating GIST or RCC. Decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 25 mg daily when treating PNET. Monitor patients for both reduced efficacy and increased toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the tacrolimus dose to 1 mg once or twice per week if coadministered with protease inhibitors that are strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Monitor response, plasma concentrations (as appropriate), and for signs of toxicity. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Reduce tacrolimus dose to one-third of the original dose if starting posaconazole or voriconazole. Coadministration with nelfinavir is not generally recommended. Tacrolimus dose reductions or prolongation of dosing interval will likely be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Avoid this combination in patients taking tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients taking tadalafil for ED or BPH, max tadalafil dose is 2.5 mg if taking daily or 10 mg no more frequently than every 72 hours if used as needed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Risk X: Avoid combination

Telithromycin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Telithromycin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Temsirolimus. Specifically, concentrations of sirolimus may be increased. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is unavoidable, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week. Resume previous temsirolimus dose 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Terfenadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Avoid coadministration of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor for thiotepa adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tipranavir: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tipranavir. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tisotumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tisotumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended dose of tolterodine is 2 mg per day (1 mg twice daily for immediate-release tablets or 2 mg daily for extended-release capsules) when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Use of toremifene with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for increased toremifene toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Risk X: Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of TraMADol. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

TraZODone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tretinoin (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased corticosteroid adverse effects during coadministration of triamcinolone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Triamcinolone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Management: For ulcerative colitis use upadacitinib 30 mg/day for 8 weeks for induction, then 15 mg/day for maintenance. For rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or atopic dermatitis use upadacitinib 15 mg/day. Monitor for upadacitinib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Valbenazine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Valproate Products: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vardenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 2.5 mg dose within a 24-hour period if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider a vemurafenib dose reduction if clinically indicated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Coadministration is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in CLL/SLL patients. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and all maintenance therapy. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Venlafaxine: May decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Verapamil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vilanterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilanterol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor closely for vincristine toxicities (eg, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Risk X: Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Vinflunine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Vinorelbine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Voclosporin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Voclosporin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Risk X: Avoid combination

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg once daily during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ziprasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ziprasidone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: If coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, initiate zopiclone at 3.75 mg in adults, with a maximum dose of 5 mg. Monitor for zopiclone toxicity (eg, drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, ataxia, respiratory depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Food Interactions

Indinavir bioavailability may be decreased if taken with food. Meals high in calories, fat, and protein result in a significant decrease in drug levels. Management: Administer with water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. May also be administered with other liquids (eg, skim milk, juice, coffee, tea) or a light meal (eg, toast, corn flakes). May be taken with food when administered in combination with ritonavir.

Reproductive Considerations

Based on the Health and Humans Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines, indinavir (unboosted or boosted with ritonavir) is not one of the recommended antiretroviral agents for use in patients with HIV infection who are trying to conceive.

Viral suppression sustained below the limits of detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and modification of therapy (if needed) is recommended in all patients with HIV infection who are planning a pregnancy. Optimization of the health of the person who will become pregnant and a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of ART during pregnancy is also recommended prior to conception. In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth.

Health care providers caring for couples planning a pregnancy when one or both partners are diagnosed with HIV infection may contact the National Perinatal HIV Hotline (1-888-448-8765) for clinical consultation (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Pregnancy Considerations

Placental transfer in humans is minimal.

Outcome information specific to use in pregnancy is no longer being reviewed and updated in the Health and Humans Services (HHS) perinatal guidelines. The HHS perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend indinavir (boosted or unboosted with ritonavir) as one of the recommended antiretroviral agents for use during pregnancy and patients who are pregnant should be changed to a preferred or alternative therapy.

Maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Actual risks may be influenced by maternal factors such as disease severity, gestational age at initiation of therapy, and specific ART regimen; therefore, close fetal monitoring is recommended. Because there is clear benefit to appropriate treatment, maternal ART should not be withheld due to concerns for adverse neonatal outcomes. Long-term follow-up is recommended for all infants exposed to antiretroviral medications; children not diagnosed with HIV infection but who were exposed to ART in utero or as a neonate and develop significant organ system abnormalities of unknown etiology (particularly of the CNS or heart) should be evaluated for potential metabolic dysfunction. Hyperbilirubinemia has been reported following therapy; it is not known if this will occur in neonates following in utero exposure to indinavir. The risk of hepatic dysfunction and gestational diabetes may be increased in pregnant patients taking protease inhibitors. Consider performing the standard glucose screening test earlier in pregnancy in patients who initiated protease inhibitor therapy prior to conception.

ART is recommended for all pregnant people with HIV infection to maximize their health, maintain the viral load below the limit of detection, and reduce the risk of perinatal transmission. Therapy should be individualized following a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy. Patients on fully suppressive regimens prior to pregnancy generally may continue the same regimen considering known pregnancy outcomes and pharmacokinetic data. Monitoring of patients who are pregnant is more frequent than in patients who are not pregnant. ART initiated during pregnancy can be modified after delivery. In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth.

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to ART is ongoing. Health care providers are encouraged to enroll patients who are pregnant exposed to antiretroviral medications as early in pregnancy as possible in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (1-800-258-4263 or www.APRegistry.com).

Health care providers caring for pregnant patients with HIV infection and their infants may contact the National Perinatal HIV Hotline (1-888-448-8765) for clinical consultation (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Breastfeeding Considerations

Indinavir is present in breast milk.

In one woman taking indinavir 600 mg and ritonavir 200 mg twice daily for 5 days after delivery, breast milk concentrations of indinavir were 90% to 540% of those in the maternal plasma (actual plasma and breast milk concentrations were not stated) (Colebunders 2005).

Maternal or infant antiretroviral therapy does not completely eliminate the risk of postnatal HIV transmission. In addition, multiclass-resistant virus has been detected in breastfeeding infants despite maternal therapy. In the United States, where formula is usually accessible, affordable, safe, and sustainable, and the risk of infant mortality due to diarrhea and respiratory infections is low, the Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend breastfeeding for patients with HIV infection when safer infant feeding options are available.

Information is available for counseling and managing patients with HIV infection who are considering breastfeeding (1-888-448-8765). In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Dietary Considerations

Should be taken without food but with water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Administration with lighter meals (eg, dry toast, skim milk, corn flakes) resulted in little/no change in indinavir concentration. If taking with ritonavir, may take with food. Patient should drink at least 48 oz of water daily.

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor viral load, CD4 count, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, liver function tests, CBC, urinalysis (patients with severe leukocyturia should be monitored frequently).

Mechanism of Action

Binds to the site of HIV-1 protease activity and inhibits cleavage of viral Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors into individual functional proteins required for infectious HIV. This results in the formation of immature, noninfectious viral particles.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Administration with a high fat, high calorie diet resulted in a reduction in AUC and in maximum serum concentration (77% and 84% respectively); lighter meal resulted in little or no change in these parameters.

Protein binding, plasma: ~60%

Metabolism: Hepatic via CYP3A4 to inactive metabolites; 6 oxidative and 1 glucuronide conjugate metabolites have been identified

Bioavailability: Good; wide interpatient variability in children: 15% to 50%

Half-life elimination:

Children 4 to 17 years (n=18): 1.1 hours

Adults: 1.8 ± 0.4 hours; hepatic insufficiency: 2.8 ± 0.5 hours

Time to peak: 0.8 ± 0.3 hours

Excretion: Feces (83%; 19.1% as unchanged drug); urine (19%; 9.4% as unchanged drug)

Pharmacokinetics: Additional Considerations

Hepatic function impairment: Mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency and clinical evidence of cirrhosis decreased metabolism, resulting in an approximate increase in AUC of 60% and increased half-life to approximately 2.8 hours.

Pediatric: AUC and Cmax slightly increased and trough concentrations were considerably lower.

Pricing: US

Capsules (Crixivan Oral)

400 mg (per each): $3.05

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Ai Hao (CN);
  • Aviran (MX);
  • Avural (AR, PY);
  • Crixivan (AE, AT, AU, BB, BE, BG, BM, BO, BS, BZ, CH, CY, CZ, DE, EC, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HR, IE, IS, IT, JM, KR, LT, LU, MT, MX, MY, NL, NO, NZ, PE, PH, PL, PR, PT, RO, RU, SE, SG, SI, SK, TR, TT, UY, VE, VN, ZA);
  • Inbec (IN);
  • Indilan (MX);
  • Indivan (IN, PY);
  • Ou Zhi (CN);
  • Virxit (CO)


For country code abbreviations (show table)
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