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Empiric antimicrobial agent selection for acute complicated urinary tract infection

Empiric antimicrobial agent selection for acute complicated urinary tract infection
Patient population Risk for MDR?* Empiric regimens Comments
Hospitalized with:
  • Critical illness warranting intensive care (eg, severe sepsis) or
  • Urinary tract obstruction
N/A
  • An antipseudomonal carbapenem:
    • Imipenem 500 mg IV every 6 hours infused over 3 hours or
    • Meropenem 1 g IV every 8 hours infused over 3 hours

PLUS

  • Vancomycin 15 to 20 mg/kg IV every 8 to 12 hours with or without a loading dose
  • The rationale for broad coverage is the high risk of adverse outcomes with insufficient antimicrobial therapy.
  • In regions with low community prevalence of ESBL-producing organisms, it is reasonable to select a regimen based on individual MDR risk, as listed for "Other hospitalized patients."
Other hospitalized patients No
  • Ceftriaxone 1 g IV once daily or
  • Piperacillin-tazobactam 3.375 g IV every 6 hours or
  • Alternatives:
    • Levofloxacin 750 mg IV or orally daily
    • Ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV twice daily
    • Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily
    • Ciprofloxacin extended-release 1000 mg orally once daily
  • If Enterococcus or Staphylococcus species are suspected (eg, based on prior isolates), piperacillin-tazobactam is preferred.
  • If Pseudomonas is suspected (based on prior isolates), piperacillin-tazobactam or a fluoroquinolone is preferred.
Yes
  • Piperacillin-tazobactam 3.375 g IV every 6 hours or
  • Cefepime 2 g IV every 12 hours (not for ESBL risk) or
  • An antipseudomonal carbapenem (if recent ESBL isolate):
    • Imipenem 500 mg IV every 6 hours infused over 3 hours or
    • Meropenem 1 g IV every 8 hours infused over 3 hours
  • If VRE or MRSA are suspected (eg, based on prior isolates), vancomycin (for MRSA) or daptomycin or linezolid (for VRE) is added.
Outpatients No, and no concerns with fluoroquinolones (eg, at low risk for adverse effects)
  • For patients with low risk of fluoroquinolone resistance/toxicity:
    • Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 5 to 7 days or
    • Ciprofloxacin extended-release 1000 mg orally once daily for 5 to 7 days or
    • Levofloxacin 750 mg orally once daily for 5 to 7 days
  • If the community prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli is known to be >10%, give one dose of a long-acting parenteral agent prior to the fluoroquinolone:
    • Ceftriaxone 1 g IV or IM once
    • Ertapenem 1 g IV or IM once
    • Gentamicin 5 mg/kg IV or IM once
    • Tobramycin 5 mg/kg IV or IM once
No, but with concerns with fluoroquinolones (eg, at risk for adverse effects)
  • For patients who cannot use a fluoroquinolone:
    • One dose of a long-acting parenteral agent:
      • Ceftriaxone 1 g IV or IM once or
      • Ertapenem 1 g IV or IM once or
      • Gentamicin 5 mg/kg IV or IM once or
      • Tobramycin 5 mg/kg IV or IM once
    • Followed by one of the following:
      • TMP-SMX one double-strength tablet orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days or
      • Amoxicillin-clavulanate 875 mg orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days or
      • Cefpodoxime 200 mg orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days or
      • Cefdinir 300 mg orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days or
      • Cefadroxil 1 g orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days
  • In outpatients who are systemically ill or are at risk for more severe illness, we favor continuing the parenteral agent until culture and susceptibility testing results can guide selection of an appropriate oral agent.
Yes
  • Ertapenem 1g IV or IM once
  • Followed by:
    • Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 5 to 7 days or
    • Ciprofloxacin extended-release 1000 mg orally once daily for 5 to 7 days or
    • Levofloxacin 750 mg orally daily for 5 to 7 days
  • If the patient cannot take a fluoroquinolone or has high risk for fluoroquinolone resistance (fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate or fluoroquinolone use in prior three months):
    • Ertapenem 1 g IV or IM once daily until cultures and susceptibility testing return
These antibiotic regimens represent our approach to empiric treatment for acute complicated UTI. Once culture and susceptibility testing results are available, the regimen should be tailored to those results. If feasible, an antibiotic with a narrow spectrum of activity should be chosen to complete the antibiotic course.

MDR: multidrug resistance; IV: intravenous; VRE: vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; IM: intramuscular; TMP-SMX: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; UTI: urinary tract infection.

* Risk factors for MDR gram-negative UTIs include any one of the following in the prior three months:
  • An MDR, gram-negative urinary isolate, including a fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas urinary isolate
  • Inpatient stay at a health care facility (eg, hospital, nursing home, long-term acute care facility)
  • Use of a fluoroquinolone, TMP-SMX, or broad-spectrum beta-lactam (eg, third- or later-generation cephalosporin)
  • Travel to parts of the world with high rates of MDR organisms
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