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Trazodone: Drug information

Trazodone: Drug information
(For additional information see "Trazodone: Patient drug information" and see "Trazodone: Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
ALERT: US Boxed Warning
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors:

Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients in short-term studies. Closely monitor all antidepressant-treated patients for clinical worsening, and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Trazodone is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Brand Names: Canada
  • APO-TraZODone;
  • APO-TraZODone D;
  • JAMP-Trazodone;
  • PMS-TraZODone;
  • TEVA-TraZODone;
  • TraZODone-100;
  • TraZODone-150;
  • TraZODone-50
Pharmacologic Category
  • Antidepressant, Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/Antagonist
Dosing: Adult

Note: Oleptro, the extended-release formulation, has been discontinued in the United States for more than 1 year.

Aggressive or agitated behavior associated with dementia

Aggressive or agitated behavior associated with dementia (alternative agent) (off-label use): Based on limited data: Oral: Immediate release: Initial: 25 to 50 mg once daily at bedtime; may increase dose gradually based on response and tolerability up to 300 mg/day in 1 to 3 divided doses (Ref). Some experts target doses in the lower end of the dosing range, rarely using doses as high as 100 to 150 mg/day (Ref).

Insomnia, sleep onset and sleep maintenance

Insomnia, sleep onset and sleep maintenance (alternative agent) (off-label use):

Note: Limit long-term use (>4 weeks) to cases for which nonpharmacologic treatments are not available or not effective and benefits are felt to outweigh risks (Ref).

Immediate release: Oral: Usual dose: 50 mg to 100 mg at bedtime (Ref). Note: Lower initial doses of 12.5 to 50 mg at bedtime may be considered (eg, in palliative care patients) (Ref). May consider increasing dose based on response and tolerability up to 200 mg at bedtime (eg, in patients with substance use disorder) (Ref). In patients with substance use disorder, trazodone may be preferred due to its low abuse potential (Ref).

Insomnia in patients with depression (as adjunct to other appropriate antidepressant treatment [eg SSRI]): Oral: Immediate release: Usual dose: 50 to 300 mg at bedtime. Doses up to 600 mg/day have been evaluated; however, evidence of greater benefit is uncertain and adverse effects may be increased (Ref).

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (unipolar) (alternative agent): Oral:

Immediate release: Initial: 50 mg twice daily; may increase in increments of 50 mg/day every 3 to 7 days to a target dose of 75 to 150 mg twice daily. Thereafter may further increase by 50 to 100 mg/day every 2 to 4 weeks based on response and tolerability; usual dosage range 200 to 400 mg/day; maximum 600 mg/day. Note: Adverse effects are increased with doses >400 mg/day and are not recommended in patients with cardiovascular disease; sedative effects may be better tolerated by dividing the daily dose to give a smaller dose in daytime and larger dose before bedtime (Ref).

Manufacturer’s labeling: Dosing in prescribing information may not reflect current clinical practice. Initial: 150 mg/day in divided doses; maximum dose: 600 mg/day (inpatients); 400 mg/day (outpatients).

Extended release: Initial: 150 mg once daily at bedtime; may increase by 75 mg/day at intervals no less than every 3 days based on response, tolerability, and severity of symptoms; maximum dose: 375 mg/day

Discontinuation of therapy:Due to its short half-life, withdrawal symptoms are likely with abrupt discontinuation. When discontinuing antidepressant treatment that has lasted for >3 weeks, gradually taper the dose (eg, over 2 to 4 weeks) to minimize withdrawal symptoms and detect reemerging symptoms (Ref). Reasons for a slower taper (eg, over 4 weeks) include history of antidepressant withdrawal symptoms or high doses of antidepressants (Ref). If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur, resume the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (Shelton 2001). Select patients (eg, those with a history of discontinuation syndrome) on long-term treatment (>6 months) may benefit from tapering over >3 months (Ref). Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited (Ref).

Switching antidepressants: Evidence for ideal antidepressant switching strategies is limited; strategies include cross-titration (gradually discontinuing the first antidepressant while at the same time gradually increasing the new antidepressant) and direct switch (abruptly discontinuing the first antidepressant and then starting the new antidepressant at an equivalent dose or lower dose and increasing it gradually). Cross-titration (eg, over 1 to 4 weeks depending upon sensitivity to discontinuation symptoms and adverse effects) is standard for most switches, but is contraindicated when switching to or from an MAOI. A direct switch may be an appropriate approach when switching to another agent in the same or similar class (eg, when switching between two SSRIs), when the antidepressant to be discontinued has been used for <1 week, or when the discontinuation is for adverse effects. When choosing the switch strategy, consider the risk of discontinuation symptoms, potential for drug interactions, other antidepressant properties (eg, half-life, adverse effects, and pharmacodynamics), and the degree of symptom control desired (Ref).

Switching to or from an MAOI:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAOI and initiation of trazodone.

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing trazodone and initiation of an MAOI.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

The renal dosing recommendations are based upon the best available evidence and clinical expertise. Senior Editorial Team: Bruce Mueller, PharmD, FCCP, FASN, FNKF; Jason Roberts, PhD, BPharm (Hons), B App Sc, FSHP, FISAC; Michael Heung, MD, MS.

Altered kidney function: Mild to severe impairment: No dosage adjustment necessary; titrate with caution (Ref).

Hemodialysis, Intermittent (thrice weekly): Not significantly dialyzed (Doweiko 1984); no dosage adjustment necessary; titrate with caution (Ref).

Peritoneal dialysis: No dosage adjustment necessary; titrate with caution (Ref).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied). Use with caution.

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Trazodone: Pediatric drug information")

Insomnia; sleep disturbances

Insomnia; sleep disturbances: Limited data available; frequently used clinically in children with comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, autistic spectrum disorders [ASDs], neurogenetic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, developmental delay with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) (Ref). Due to possible risk of QT prolongation, it is suggested to avoid or use with caution in patients with Rett syndrome (Ref).

Oral: Immediate-release formulation:

Children 18 months to <3 years: Oral: Immediate release: Initial: 1 to 2 mg/kg/dose at bedtime; maximum dose: 25 mg/dose; may increase dose at 2-week intervals in 12.5 to 25 mg increments up to 3 mg/kg/dose once daily at bedtime, not to exceed a maximum dose: 100 mg/dose (Ref). Note: Pharmacokinetic analysis based on simulation reported that the following age-dependent pediatric doses resulted in exposures similar to adult doses of 30 to 150 mg/day: Children 2 to 6 years: 0.35 to 1.6 mg/kg/day; experiential data are needed to fully assess (Ref).

Children 3 to 5 years: Oral: Immediate release: Initial: 1 to 2 mg/kg/dose at bedtime; maximum dose: 50 mg/dose; may increase dose at 2-week intervals in 12.5 to 25 mg increments up to 3 mg/kg/dose once daily at bedtime, not to exceed a maximum dose: 150 mg/dose (Ref). Note: Pharmacokinetic analysis based on simulation reported that the following age-dependent pediatric doses resulted in exposures similar to adult doses of 30 to 150 mg/day: Children 2 to 6 years: 0.35 to 1.6 mg/kg/day; experiential data are needed to fully assess (Ref).

Children >5 years and Adolescents: Oral: Immediate release: Initial: 0.75 to 1 mg/kg/dose or 25 to 50 mg at bedtime; may increase at 2-week intervals in 12.5 to 25 mg increments up to a maximum dose of 200 mg/dose; reported range: 0.5 to 2 mg/kg/day (Ref). When used for palliative care, multiple daily doses may be necessary; in patients >18 years of age, 25 to 50 mg/dose increased gradually to twice or 3 times daily as needed (do not exceed adult dosing) (Ref). Note: Pharmacokinetic analysis based on simulation reported that the following age-dependent pediatric doses resulted in exposures similar to adult doses of 30 to 150 mg/day: Children >6 to 12 years: 0.4 to 1.9 mg/kg/day and Adolescents: 0.4 to 2.1 mg/kg/day (Ref); experiential data are needed to fully assess.

Migraine, prophylaxis

Migraine, prophylaxis: Limited data available: Note: Efficacy results variable; expert recommendations for migraine prevention in children and adolescents do not suggest trazodone as a routine therapeutic option (Ref).

Children ≥7 years and Adolescents: Oral: Immediate-release formulation: 1 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses; maximum dose: 150 mg/dose (Ref).

Discontinuation of therapy: Due to short half-life of trazodone, avoid abrupt discontinuation to minimize the incidence of withdrawal symptoms, rebound insomnia, or increased nightmares as a result of REM sleep rebound. Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited. APA and NICE guidelines suggest tapering therapy over at least several weeks with consideration to the half-life of the drug; drugs with a shorter half-life may need to be tapered more conservatively. If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur following a dose reduction, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (Ref).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no specific pediatric dosage adjustments; in adult patients, no dosage adjustment is necessary for mild to moderate kidney impairment, and titration should be done with caution. Not significantly dialyzed (Ref).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling. Use with caution.

Dosing: Older Adult

Major depressive disorder (unipolar) (alternative agent):

Immediate release: Oral: Initial: 25 to 50 mg at bedtime; may increase in increments of 25 to 50 mg/day every 3 days for inpatients and weekly for outpatients, if tolerated; usual dose: 75 to 150 mg/day

Extended release: Refer to adult dosing. Use with caution in the elderly; clinical experience is limited.

Discontinuation of therapy: Refer to adult dosing.

Switching antidepressants: Refer to adult dosing.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Generic: 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg

Generic Equivalent Available: US

Yes

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Generic: 75 mg

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Generic: 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg

Product Availability

Oleptro has been discontinued in the United States for more than 1 year.

Medication Guide and/or Vaccine Information Statement (VIS)

An FDA-approved patient medication guide, which is available with the product information and as follows, must be dispensed with this medication:

Desyrel: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/018207s032lbl.pdf#page=13

Oleptro extended release tablets: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM202202.pdf

Antidepressant medications: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm100211.pdf

Administration: Adult

Oral:

IR tablet: Administer shortly after a meal or light snack; swallow whole or as a half tablet by breaking along the score line.

ER tablet: Take on an empty stomach; swallow whole or as a half tablet without food. Tablet may be broken along the score line, but do not crush or chew.

Bariatric surgery: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate. IR tablet formulation is available. If safety and efficacy can be effectively monitored, no change in formulation or administration is required after bariatric surgery.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Immediate release: Administer after meals or a snack to decrease lightheadedness, sedation, and postural hypotension; swallow whole or as a half tablet by breaking along the score line.

Use: Labeled Indications

Major depressive disorder (unipolar): Treatment of unipolar major depressive disorder

Use: Off-Label: Adult

Aggressive or agitated behavior associated with dementia; Insomnia, sleep onset and sleep maintenance

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Desyrel may be confused with deferoxamine, Demerol, Delsym, SEROquel, Zestril

TraZODone may be confused with traMADol, ziprasidone

Adverse Reactions (Significant): Considerations
Activation of mania or hypomania

Antidepressants may precipitate a mixed/manic episode in patients with bipolar disorder. Treatment-emergent mania or hypomania in patients with unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported, as many cases of bipolar disorder present in episodes of MDD (Ref).

Mechanism: Non-dose-related; idiosyncratic; unclear to what extent mood switches represent an uncovering of unrecognized bipolar disorder or a more direct pharmacologic effect independent of diagnosis (Ref). May interfere with the balance of neurotransmitter systems when trazodone is added to other antidepressant therapies, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (eg, sertraline) (Ref).

Onset: Varied; onset may vary from 4 days to 4 weeks (Ref). A systematic review observed that the risk of switching increased significantly within the initial 2 years of antidepressant treatment in patients with unipolar MDD receiving an antidepressant as monotherapy but not thereafter (up to 4.6 years) (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Family history of bipolar disorder (Ref)

• Depressive episode with psychotic symptoms (Ref)

• Younger age at onset of depression (Ref)

• Antidepressant resistance (Ref)

• Female sex (Ref)

Bleeding risk

Trazodone may increase the risk of bleeding, particularly if used concomitantly with antiplatelet and/or anticoagulants. Multiple observational studies with other drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]) have found an association with use and a variety of bleeding complications. Similar to these agents, trazodone may increase the risk of bleeding; however, the risk may be lower (Ref).

Mechanism: Possibly via inhibition of serotonin-mediated platelet activation and subsequent platelet dysfunction (Ref).

Onset : Varied; per SSRI-derived literature (ie, trazodone not included), bleeding risk is likely delayed for several weeks until SSRI-induced platelet serotonin depletion becomes clinically significant (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Concomitant use of antiplatelets and/or anticoagulants (based on SSRI-derived literature) (Ref)

• Preexisting platelet dysfunction or coagulation disorders (eg, von Willebrand factor) (Ref)

Cardiac arrhythmias

Cardiac arrhythmias, including prolonged QT interval on ECG (with or without torsades de pointes [TdP]) and ventricular tachycardia, have been reported. Other arrhythmias identified include ventricular premature contractions, ventricular couplets, tachycardia with syncope, sinus bradycardia, first-degree atrioventricular block, and complete atrioventricular block (Ref).

Mechanism: Dose-related (generally, although may also occur at low to moderate doses); QT prolongation may be a result of the concentration-dependent inhibition of human ether-à-go-go (hERG) channel current (Ref).

Risk factors:

Risk factors for drug-induced QT prolongation (in general):

• Females (Ref)

• Age >65 years (Ref)

• Structural heart disease (eg, history of myocardial infarction or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction) (Ref)

• History of drug-induced TdP (Ref)

• Genetic defects of cardiac ion channels (Ref)

• Congenital long QT syndrome (Ref)

• Baseline QTc interval prolongation (eg, >500 msec or lengthening of the QTc by ≥60 msec) (Ref)

• Electrolyte disturbances (eg, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia) (Ref)

• Bradycardia (Ref)

• Hepatic impairment (Ref)

• Kidney impairment (Ref)

• Coadministration of multiple medications (≥2) that prolong the QT interval or increase drug interactions that increase serum drug concentrations of QTc prolonging medications (Ref)

• Substance use (Ref)

Orthostatic hypotension

Trazodone may cause significant orthostatic hypotension, which may lead to syncope and subsequent falls and fracture (Ref).

Mechanism: Orthostatic hypotension is due to alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blockade (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Cerebrovascular disease

• Cardiovascular disease

• Hypovolemia/dehydration (Ref)

• Concurrent medication use that may predispose to hypotension/bradycardia (Ref)

• Older adults, especially in those with preexisting heart conditions (Ref)

Priapism

Priapism has been reported rarely (Ref).

Mechanism: Related to the blockade of alpha receptors in the absence of sufficient antimuscarinic activity (Ref).

Onset: Intermediate; usually evident within 28 days of beginning treatment (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Sickle cell anemia

• Multiple myeloma

• Leukemia

• Anatomical deformation of the penis (eg, angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, Peyronie disease)

Serotonin syndrome

Serotonin syndrome has been reported and typically occurs with coadministration of multiple serotonergic drugs but can occur following a single serotonergic agent at therapeutic doses (Ref). The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome is made based on the Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria (Ref) and may result in a spectrum of symptoms, such as anxiety, agitation, confusion, delirium, hyperreflexia, muscle rigidity, myoclonus, tachycardia, tachypnea, and tremor. Severe cases may cause hyperthermia, significant autonomic instability (ie, rapid and severe changes in blood pressure and pulse), coma, and seizures (Ref).

Mechanism: Dose-related; overstimulation of serotonin receptors by serotonergic agents (Ref).

Onset: Rapid; in the majority of cases (74%), onset occurred within 24 hours of treatment initiation, overdose, or change in dose (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Concomitant use of drugs that increase serotonin synthesis, block serotonin reuptake, and/or impair serotonin metabolism (eg, monoamine oxidase inhibitors [MAOIs]). Of note, concomitant use of some serotonergic agents, such as MAOIs, is contraindicated.

Suicidal thinking and behavior

Antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicidal tendencies in pediatric and young adult patients (18 to 24 years) in short-term studies. In adults >24 years, short-term studies did not show an increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior, and in older adults ≥65 years of age, a decreased risk was observed. Although data have yielded inconsistent results regarding the association of antidepressants and risk of suicide, particularly among adults, collective evidence shows a trend of an elevated risk of suicidality in younger age groups (Ref). Of note, the risk of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs.

Mechanism: Not established; one of several postulated mechanisms is antidepressants may energize suicidal patients to act on impulses; another suggests that antidepressants may produce a worsening of depressive symptoms leading to the emergence of suicidal thoughts and actions (Ref).

Onset: Varied; increased risk observed in short-term studies (ie, <4 months) in pediatric and young adults; it is unknown whether the risk extends to longer-term use (>4 months).

Risk factors:

• Children and adolescents (Ref)

• Depression (risk of suicide associated with major depression and may persist until remission occurs)

Withdrawal syndrome

Withdrawal syndrome, consisting of both somatic symptoms (eg, dizziness, chills, lightheadedness, vertigo, shock-like sensations, paresthesia, fatigue, headache, nausea, tremor, diarrhea, visual disturbances) and psychological symptoms (eg, anxiety, agitation, confusion, insomnia, irritability), has been reported, primarily following the abrupt discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (including case reports with trazodone). Withdrawal symptoms may also occur following gradual tapering (Ref).

Mechanism: Withdrawal; due to reduced availability of serotonin in the CNS with decreasing levels of the serotonergic agent. Other neurotransmission systems, including increased glutamine and dopamine, may also be affected, as well as effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Ref).

Onset: Intermediate; expected onset is 1 to 10 days (following either abrupt or tapered discontinuation) (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Abrupt discontinuation (rather than gradual dosage reduction) of an antidepressant treatment that has lasted >3 weeks, particularly a drug with a half-life <24 hours (eg, paroxetine, venlafaxine) (Ref)

• Prior history of antidepressant withdrawal symptoms (Ref)

• High dose (Ref)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

>10%:

Gastrointestinal: Nausea and vomiting (10% to 13%), xerostomia (15% to 34%)

Nervous system: Dizziness (20% to 28%), drowsiness (24% to 41%), fatigue (6% to 11%), headache (10% to 20%), nervousness (15%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (6% to 15%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain, hypotension (4% to 7%) (table 1), palpitations, sinus bradycardia, syncope (3% to 5%) (table 2), tachycardia (may include syncope)

TraZODone: Adverse Reaction: Hypotension

Drug (Trazodone)

Placebo

Population

Number of Patients (Trazodone)

Number of Patients (Placebo)

7%

1%

Inpatients

142

95

4%

0%

Outpatients

157

158

TraZODone: Adverse Reaction: Syncope

Drug (Trazodone)

Placebo

Population

Number of Patients (Trazodone)

Number of Patients (Placebo)

3%

2%

Inpatients

142

95

5%

1%

Outpatients

157

158

Endocrine & metabolic: Change in menstrual flow, increased libido, weight gain (1% to 5%), weight loss (6%)

Gastrointestinal: Constipation (7% to 8%), diarrhea (5%), flatulence, gastrointestinal disease (6%), increased appetite, sialorrhea

Genitourinary: Early menses, hematuria, impotence, retrograde ejaculation, urinary frequency, urinary hesitancy

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema (3% to 7%), hypersensitivity reaction

Nervous system: Akathisia, ataxia (2% to 5%), confusion (5%), delusion, disorientation (2%), hallucination, heavy headedness (3%), hypomania, lack of concentration (1% to 3%), malaise (3%), memory impairment, numbness, paresthesia, speech disturbance

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Muscle twitching, myalgia (5% to 6%), tremor (3% to 5%)

Ophthalmic: Asthenopia, eye pruritus, eye redness

Respiratory: Dyspnea, nasal congestion (≤6%), paranasal sinus congestion (≤6%)

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Hypertension, ventricular premature contractions

Nervous system: Suicidal ideation, suicidal tendencies

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation (White 1985), bradycardia (Li 2011), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac conduction disorder, cardiac failure, cerebrovascular accident, complete atrioventricular block (rare: <1%) (Rausch 1984), edema (Barnett 1985), first-degree atrioventricular block (rare: <1%) (Winkler 2006), orthostatic hypotension (common: ≥10%) (Poon 2005; Spivak 1987), prolonged QT interval on ECG (de Meester 2001; Levenson 1999), torsades de pointes (de Meester 2001; Levenson 1999), ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardia (rare: <1%) (Aronson 1986, Vittulo 1990)

Dermatologic: Alopecia, leukonychia (Longstreth 1985), psoriasis (Barth 1986), skin rash, urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Hirsutism, SIADH

Gastrointestinal: Cholestasis (Sheikh 1983), esophageal achalasia

Genitourinary: Breast engorgement, breast hypertrophy, lactation, priapism (rare: <1%) (Raskin 1985; Scher 1983), urinary incontinence, urinary retention

Hematologic & oncologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukocytosis, methemoglobinemia

Hepatic: Hepatotoxicity (Fernandes 2000; Rettman 2001)

Nervous system: Abnormal dreams, anxiety, aphasia, delirium (Lennkh 1998), extrapyramidal reaction (Sotto 2015 ), female sexual disorder (Battaglia 2009; Purcell 1995), insomnia, mania (rare: <1%) (Hu 2017), paranoid ideation, psychosis (Mizoguchi 2005), seizure (Vanpee 1999), serotonin syndrome (rare: <1%) (Duignan 2019; Hudd 2010), stupor, tardive dyskinesia (Lin 2008), vertigo

Ophthalmic: Diplopia

Respiratory: Apnea

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to trazodone or any component of the formulation; use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders (concurrently or within 14 days of discontinuing either trazodone or the MAOI); initiation of trazodone in a patient receiving linezolid or intravenous methylene blue

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving).

• Falls: May cause falls and major osteoporotic fractures (eg, hip, pelvis, humerus, forearm) when used in elderly patients. The fall rate was found to be similar to the rates associated with antipsychotics and benzodiazepines (Bronskill 2018; Watt 2018).

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation, which can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma in susceptible individuals. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors.

Disease-related concerns:

• Coronary artery disease: Not recommended for use in a patient during the acute recovery phase of MI due to exacerbation of arrhythmias.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; has not been studied in hepatic impairment.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.

• Seizure disorder: Use with caution in patients at risk of seizures, including those with a history of seizures, head trauma, brain damage, alcoholism, or concurrent therapy with medications that may lower seizure threshold (Hill 2015).

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP2D6 (minor), CYP3A4 (major); Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of TraZODone. Specifically, effects on sleepiness, dizziness, and manual dexterity may be enhanced. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Almotriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability). Initiate amphetamines at lower doses, monitor frequently, and adjust doses as needed. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonergic agents may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Management: Use caution if coadministering blonanserin and CNS depressants; dose reduction of the other CNS depressant may be required. Strong CNS depressants should not be coadministered with blonanserin. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Brexanolone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brexanolone: Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/Antagonists may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine at lower doses in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

BusPIRone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of TraZODone. TraZODone may increase the serum concentration of CarBAMazepine. Management: Consider increasing the trazodone dose during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as carbamazepine. In addition, monitor for increased carbamazepine concentrations and effects during coadministration with trazodone. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyclobenzaprine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of TraZODone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider increasing the trazodone dose during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Do not use serotonergic agents (high risk) with dapoxetine or within 7 days of serotonergic agent discontinuation. Do not use dapoxetine within 14 days of monoamine oxidase inhibitor use. Dapoxetine labeling lists this combination as contraindicated. Risk X: Avoid combination

Daridorexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dose reduction of daridorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of daridorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of daridorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DexmedeTOMIDine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of DexmedeTOMIDine. Management: Monitor for increased CNS depression during coadministration of dexmedetomidine and CNS depressants, and consider dose reductions of either agent to avoid excessive CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dexmethylphenidate-Methylphenidate: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dextromethorphan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Difelikefalin: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eletriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ergot Derivatives: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Esketamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fenfluramine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fexinidazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

Flunarizine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunarizine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Management: Reduce the dose of CNS depressants when combined with flunitrazepam and monitor patients for evidence of CNS depression (eg, sedation, respiratory depression). Use non-CNS depressant alternatives when available. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of TraZODone. TraZODone may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Management: Consider increasing the trazodone dose during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as fosphenytoin. In addition, monitor for increased phenytoin concentrations and effects during coadministration with trazodone. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Avoid) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider a decrease in the CNS depressant dose, as appropriate, when used together with hydroxyzine. Increase monitoring of signs/symptoms of CNS depression in any patient receiving hydroxyzine together with another CNS depressant. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Kava Kava: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Kratom: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lasmiditan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lemborexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS depressant effects. Close monitoring for CNS depressant effects is necessary. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lisuride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lorcaserin (Withdrawn From US Market): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce the usual dose of CNS depressants by 50% if starting methotrimeprazine until the dose of methotrimeprazine is stable. Monitor patient closely for evidence of CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Methylene Blue: Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Metoclopramide: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Metoclopramide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Consider monitoring for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Minocycline (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: TraZODone may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. TraZODone may enhance the serotonergic effect of Mirtazapine. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and CNS depression when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant): Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nefazodone: TraZODone may enhance the serotonergic effect of Nefazodone. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Nefazodone may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects such as sedation, QTc prolongation, and signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Olopatadine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ondansetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Agonists. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid agonists and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Oxitriptan: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Oxitriptan. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Oxybate Salt Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Oxybate Salt Products. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, dose reduction or discontinuation of one or more CNS depressants (including the oxybate salt product) should be considered. Interrupt oxybate salt treatment during short-term opioid use Risk D: Consider therapy modification

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ozanimod: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Risk X: Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of TraZODone. TraZODone may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Management: Consider increasing the trazodone dose during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as phenytoin. In addition, monitor for increased phenytoin concentrations and effects during coadministration with trazodone. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Piribedil: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Procarbazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Avoid) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rasagiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b. Specifically, the risk of neuropsychiatric adverse effects may be increased. Management: Avoid coadministration of ropeginterferon alfa-2b and other CNS depressants. If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor patients for neuropsychiatric adverse effects (eg, depression, suicidal ideation, aggression, mania). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Safinamide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Saquinavir: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of TraZODone. Saquinavir may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Selegiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk): Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk). Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity and CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Serotonin 5-HT1D Receptor Agonists (Triptans): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: TraZODone may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. St John's Wort may decrease the serum concentration of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Syrian Rue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and CNS depression when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Valerian: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Warfarin: TraZODone may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Warfarin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Food Interactions

Time to peak serum levels may be increased if immediate release trazodone is taken with food. Management: Administer immediate release after a meal or light snack. Administer extended release on an empty stomach.

Pregnancy Considerations

Trazodone and the active metabolite 1-m-chlorophenylpiperazine cross the placenta and can be detected in cord blood at delivery (Saito 2021).

Based on available data, an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not been observed following use of trazodone during pregnancy (Anderson 2020; Einarson 2003; Einarson 2009). Long-term effects on neurodevelopment are not known (Korade 2021).

Untreated or inadequately treated psychiatric illness may lead to poor adherence with prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therapy with antidepressants during pregnancy should be individualized; treatment with antidepressant medication is recommended for pregnant patients with severe major depressive disorder (ACOG 2008; CANMAT [MacQueen 2016]). Patients treated for major depression and who are euthymic prior to pregnancy are more likely to experience a relapse when medication is discontinued (68%) as compared to pregnant patients who continue taking antidepressant medications (26%) (Cohen 2006). However, if treatment for major depressive disorder is initiated for the first time during pregnancy, trazodone is not one of the preferred medications (CANMAT [MacQueen 2016]; Larsen 2015; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]).

Trazodone has also been evaluated for the treatment of insomnia. A randomized, placebo-controlled study in pregnant patients found trazodone (n = 18) to improve total sleep duration and sleep efficacy after 6 weeks of treatment compared to placebo (n = 17). In addition, the risk of postpartum depression was decreased. Treatment began during the third trimester and patients had no underlying sleep or mood disorders prior to pregnancy. Daytime sleepiness was a common adverse event (Khazaie 2013). In nonpregnant patients, trazodone is not the preferred treatment when cognitive behavioral therapies are not adequate because harm outweighs benefit (AASM [Sateia 2017]). Cognitive behavioral therapy is also effective in pregnant patients and is the currently preferred treatment (Bacaro 2020).

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to antidepressant medications is ongoing. Patients exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants. Pregnant patients 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 1-844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Breastfeeding Considerations

Trazodone and the active metabolite 1-m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) are present in breast milk (Saito 2021).

Information related to the presence of trazodone in breast milk is available from a study that administered a single dose of trazodone 50 mg to 6 otherwise healthy breastfeeding women, 3 to 8 months postpartum. Breast milk was sampled over 24 hours. The presence of trazodone metabolites was not evaluated. Trazodone concentrations in breast milk peaked about 2 hours following administration, approximately the same time as in the plasma (Verbeeck 1986). Using data from this study, the relative infant dose (RID) of trazodone was calculated to be 2% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, based on the highest breast milk concentration (100 ng/mL), providing an estimated daily infant dose via breast milk of 0.015 mg/kg/day.

Information related to the presence of trazodone and mCPP in breast milk is available from a patient following use of trazodone 50 mg daily during pregnancy and postpartum. Breast milk was sampled after 5 days of therapy. The highest concentrations of trazodone (50.2 ng/mL) and mCPP (3.2 ng/mL) in breast milk were in the sample obtained 7.2 hours after a maternal dose. Using the highest breast milk concentration of trazodone, authors of this study calculated the RID to be 0.8% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, providing an estimated daily infant dose via breast milk of 0.008 mg/kg/day. The infant was partially breastfed with >50% of nutrition from breast milk. Trazodone and mCPP were detected in infant serum 14.2 hours after birth (156.6 ng/mL and 9.8 ng/mL, respectively) and decreased significantly by postpartum day 5 (1.3 ng/mL and <0.2 ng/mL, respectively). This infant required oxygen due to a persistent respiratory disturbance for the first 4 days after birth (mother also taking etizolam); however, no drug-related adverse events were observed in the infant up to 6 months of age (Saito 2021).

In general, breastfeeding is considered acceptable when the RID is <10% (Anderson 2016; Ito 2000). However, some sources note breastfeeding should only be considered if the RID is <5% for psychotropic agents (Larsen 2015).

Additional information related to the use of trazodone in breastfeeding women is limited (Misri 1991; Misri 2006).

According to the manufacturer, the decision to breastfeed during therapy should consider the risk of infant exposure, the benefits of breastfeeding to the infant, and benefits of treatment to the mother. Infants exposed to antidepressants via breast milk should be monitored for changes in sleep, feeding patterns, and behavior as well as growth and development (Sachs 2013; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]).

Psychotherapy or other nonmedication therapies are recommended for the initial treatment of mild depression in breastfeeding patients; antidepressant medication is recommended when psychotherapy is not an option or symptoms are moderate to severe. If a specific medication was used effectively during pregnancy, it can be continued while breastfeeding if no contraindications exist (ABM [Sriraman 2015]).

When first initiating an antidepressant in a breastfeeding patient, agents other than trazodone are preferred (ABM [Sriraman 2015]; CANMAT [MacQueen 2016]; Larsen 2015).

Monitoring Parameters

Baseline liver function prior to and periodically during therapy; closely monitor patients for depression, clinical worsening, suicidality, psychosis, or unusual changes in behavior (eg. anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania), particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); signs/symptoms of serotonin syndrome such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile BP, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures; signs/symptoms of hypotension or orthostasis.

Mechanism of Action

Inhibits reuptake of serotonin, causes adrenoreceptor subsensitivity, acts as a 5HT2a receptor antagonist and induces significant changes in 5-HT presynaptic receptor adrenoreceptors. Trazodone also significantly blocks histamine (H1) and alpha1-adrenergic receptors.

Pharmacokinetics

Onset of action: Depression: Initial effects may be observed within 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, with continued improvements through 4 to 6 weeks (Papakostas 2006; Posternak 2005; Szegedi 2009).

Absorption: Well absorbed. Food increases absorption, decreases peak concentration and delays time to peak concentration of immediate release tablet; Extended release: Cmax increases ~86% when taken shortly after ingestion of a high-fat meal compared to fasting conditions

Protein binding: 89% to 95%

Metabolism: Hepatic via CYP3A4 (extensive) to an active metabolite (mCPP)

Bioavailability: 100% (Hiemke 2018)

Half-life elimination: 5 to 9 hours, prolonged in obese patients

Time to peak, serum:

Immediate release: 30 to 100 minutes; delayed with food (up to 2.5 hours)

Extended release: 9 hours; not significantly affected by food

Excretion: Primarily urine (74%, <1% excreted unchanged); secondarily feces (~21%)

Pricing: US

Tablets (traZODone HCl Oral)

50 mg (per each): $0.15 - $1.07

100 mg (per each): $0.21 - $1.39

150 mg (per each): $0.52 - $2.79

300 mg (per each): $5.44

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Acraf (CH);
  • Azonz (FI);
  • Codipzona (CL);
  • Deprel (PK);
  • Depresil (PH);
  • Depryl (IN);
  • Desirel (TH);
  • Desyrel (JP);
  • Devidon (HR);
  • Donaren (BR);
  • Mei Su Yu (CN);
  • Mesyrel (CN, TW);
  • Mesyrol (HK);
  • Molipaxin (GB, ZA);
  • Nestrolan (BE);
  • Oleptro (BM);
  • Pragmarel (FR);
  • Reslin (JP);
  • Taxagon (AR);
  • Taxagon AC (UY);
  • Thombran (DE);
  • Torlex (TW);
  • Trazo (TH);
  • Trazodil (IL);
  • Trazodone-Continental (LU);
  • Trazolan (BE, IN, LU, NL);
  • Trazone (PT);
  • Trazonil (IN);
  • Trazopress (HK);
  • Trittico (AE, AT, BG, BH, CH, CL, CO, CY, CZ, EG, GR, HK, HN, IL, IQ, IR, IT, JO, KR, KW, LB, LY, OM, PE, PL, PY, QA, RU, SA, SG, SI, SK, SY, UA, VE, YE);
  • Trittico AC (CO, RO);
  • Trittico CR (KR);
  • Zodonrel (TH)


For country code abbreviations (show table)
  1. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin: Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists Number 92, April 2008 (Replaces Practice Bulletin Number 87, November 2007). Use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111(4):1001-1020. [PubMed 18378767]
  2. Alvarez PA, Pahissa J. QT alterations in psychopharmacology: proven candidates and suspects. Curr Drug Saf. 2010;5(1):97-104. doi:10.2174/157488610789869265 [PubMed 20210726]
  3. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. 3rd ed. http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/mdd.pdf. Published October 2010. Accessed July 2018.
  4. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. 2nd ed. https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/substanceuse.pdf. Published August 2006. Accessed August 2018.
  5. Anderson KN, Lind JN, Simeone RM, et al. Maternal use of specific antidepressant medications during early pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects. JAMA Psychiatry. 2020;77(12):1246-1255. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2453 [PubMed 32777011]
  6. Anderson PO, Sauberan JB. Modeling drug passage into human milk. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016;100(1):42-52. [PubMed 27060684]
  7. Andrade C, Sandarsh S, Chethan KB, Nagesh KS. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: a review for clinicians and a reconsideration of mechanisms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(12):1565‐1575. doi:10.4088/JCP.09r05786blu [PubMed 21190637]
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