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Clomipramine: Drug information

Clomipramine: Drug information
(For additional information see "Clomipramine: Patient drug information" and see "Clomipramine: Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
ALERT: US Boxed Warning
Suicidality and antidepressant drugs:

Compared with placebo, antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of clomipramine or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults older than 24 years; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults 65 years and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. Appropriately monitor patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy and observe closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Clomipramine is not approved for use in pediatric patients except for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Brand Names: US
  • Anafranil
Brand Names: Canada
  • Anafranil;
  • MED ClomiPRAMINE;
  • TARO-Clomipramine
Pharmacologic Category
  • Antidepressant, Tricyclic (Tertiary Amine)
Dosing: Adult
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment:

Initial: Oral: 25 mg once daily; may gradually increase as tolerated over the first 2 weeks to ~100 mg/day in divided doses.

After the initial titration, wait 2 to 3 weeks between dosing adjustments to assess tolerability and effectiveness. May further increase over next several weeks up to a maximum of 250 mg/day; after titration, may give as a single dose once daily at bedtime.

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (unipolar) (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 25 to 50 mg once daily at bedtime; titrate every 1 to 3 days in 50 mg increments to an effective dose (usual dose: 150 mg/day); doses as high as 250 mg/day have been studied (DUAG 1990; Lépine 2000; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]; Zohar 2003)

Panic disorder

Panic disorder (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 10 to 25 mg daily; increase by 10 to 25 mg every 2 to 3 days based on efficacy and tolerability to a target dose of 50 to 150 mg/day, in 1 to 3 divided doses; guidelines recommend doses ranging from 50 to 250 mg/day (APA [Stein 2009]; Caillard 1999; Lecrubier 1997a; Lecrubier 1997b; WFSBP [Bandelow 2012]).

Discontinuation of therapy:Due to its prolonged half-life, withdrawal symptoms are typically not observed after abrupt discontinuation; however, tapering should still be considered to assess for symptom reoccurrence. When discontinuing antidepressant treatment that has lasted for >3 weeks, gradually taper the dose (eg, over 2 to 4 weeks) to minimize withdrawal symptoms and detect reemerging symptoms (APA 2010; WFSBP [Bauer 2015]). Reasons for a slower taper (eg, over 4 weeks) include prior history of antidepressant withdrawal symptoms or high doses of antidepressants (APA 2010; Hirsch 2022a). If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur, resume the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (Shelton 2001). Select patients (eg, those with a history of discontinuation syndrome) on long-term treatment (>6 months) may benefit from tapering over >3 months (WFSBP [Bauer 2015]). Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited (Shelton 2001; WFSBP [Bauer 2015]).

Switching antidepressants: Evidence for ideal antidepressant switching strategies is limited; strategies include cross-titration (gradually discontinuing the first antidepressant while at the same time gradually increasing the new antidepressant) and direct switch (abruptly discontinuing the first antidepressant and then starting the new antidepressant at an equivalent dose or lower dose and increasing it gradually). Cross-titration (eg, over 1 to 4 weeks depending upon sensitivity to discontinuation symptoms and adverse effects) is standard for most switches, but is contraindicated when switching to or from a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. A direct switch may be an appropriate approach when switching to another agent in the same or similar class (eg, when switching between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), when the antidepressant to be discontinued has been used for <1 week, or when the discontinuation is for adverse effects. When choosing the switch strategy, consider the risk of discontinuation symptoms, potential for drug interactions, other antidepressant properties (eg, half-life, adverse effects, pharmacodynamics), and the degree of symptom control desired (Hirsch 2022b; Ogle 2013; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]).

Switching to or from a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI):

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAOI and initiation of clomipramine.

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing clomipramine and initiation of an MAOI.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied). Use with caution in patients with significantly impaired renal function.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied); however, hepatically metabolized. Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. Some experts recommended reducing initial and maintenance doses by 50% in patients with hepatic impairment, with cautious dose adjustments based on response and tolerability (Mauri 2014; Mulish 2014).

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Clomipramine: Pediatric drug information")

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment: Children ≥10 years and Adolescents: Oral:

Initial: 25 mg daily; gradually increase as tolerated over the first 2 weeks to 3 mg/kg/day or 100 mg daily (whichever is less) in divided doses (may be divided with meals)

Maintenance: May further increase over next several weeks up to maximum daily dose: 3 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/day (whichever is less); after titration, may give as a single once daily dose at bedtime

Discontinuation of therapy: Upon discontinuation of antidepressant therapy, gradually taper the dose to minimize the incidence of withdrawal symptoms and allow for the detection of reemerging symptoms. Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited. APA and NICE guidelines suggest tapering therapy over at least several weeks with consideration to the half-life of the antidepressant; antidepressants with a shorter half-life may need to be tapered more conservatively. In addition for long-term treated patients, WFSBP guidelines recommend tapering over 4 to 6 months. If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur following a dose reduction, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (APA 2007; APA 2010; Bauer 2002; Haddad 2001; NCCMH 2010; Schatzberg 2006; Shelton 2001; Warner 2006).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

MAO inhibitor recommendations:

Switching to or from an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of clomipramine.

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing clomipramine and initiation of an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders.

Use with other MAO inhibitors (linezolid or IV methylene blue):

Do not initiate clomipramine in patients receiving linezolid or IV methylene blue; consider other interventions for psychiatric condition.

If urgent treatment with linezolid or IV methylene blue is required in a patient already receiving clomipramine and potential benefits outweigh potential risks, discontinue clomipramine promptly and administer linezolid or IV methylene blue. Monitor for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue, whichever comes first. May resume clomipramine 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

Children ≥10 years and Adolescents: There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied). Use with caution in patients with significantly impaired renal function.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

Children ≥10 years and Adolescents: There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer's labeling; clomipramine is hepatically metabolized; use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. In adult patients, initial dose reductions suggested.

Dosing: Older Adult

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Anafranil: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg

Generic: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg

Generic Equivalent Available: US

Yes

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Generic: 25 mg, 50 mg

Tablet, Oral:

Anafranil: 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg

Generic: 10 mg

Medication Guide and/or Vaccine Information Statement (VIS)

An FDA-approved patient medication guide, which is available with the product information and at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/019906s043lbl.pdf#page=27, must be dispensed with this medication.

Administration: Adult

Oral: During titration, may divide doses and administer with meals to decrease gastrointestinal side effects. After titration, may administer total daily dose at bedtime to decrease daytime sedation.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: May administer with food to decrease GI upset.

Use: Labeled Indications

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

Use: Off-Label: Adult

Major depressive disorder (unipolar); Panic disorder

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

ClomiPRAMINE may be confused with chlorproMAZINE, clevidipine, clomiPHENE, desipramine, Norpramin

Anafranil may be confused with alfentanil, enalapril, nafarelin

Older Adult: High-Risk Medication:

Beers Criteria: Clomipramine (alone or in combination) is identified in the Beers Criteria as a potentially inappropriate medication to be avoided in patients 65 years and older (independent of diagnosis or condition) due to its strong anticholinergic properties and potential for sedation and orthostatic hypotension. In addition, use TCAs with caution due to their potential to cause or exacerbate syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or hyponatremia; monitor sodium closely with initiation or dosage adjustments in older adults (Beers Criteria [AGS 2019]).

Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA): Clomipramine (alone or in combination) is identified as a high-risk medication in patients 65 years and older on the PQA’s, Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly (HRM) performance measure, a safety measure used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for Medicare plans (PQA 2017).

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

>10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (adults: 54%; children and adolescents: 41%), drowsiness (46% to 54%), headache (adults: 52%), fatigue (35% to 39%), insomnia (adults: 25%; children and adolescents: 11%), nervousness (adults: 18%; children and adolescents: 4%), myoclonus (adults: 13%; children and adolescents: 2%)

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis (adults: 29%; children and adolescents: 9%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Change in libido (adults: 21%), weight gain (adults: 18%; children and adolescents: 2%)

Gastrointestinal: Xerostomia (adults: 84%, children and adolescents: 63%), constipation (adults: 47%; children and adolescents: 22%), nausea (adults: 33%), dyspepsia (13% to 22%), anorexia (12% to 22%), diarrhea (7% to 13%), abdominal pain (adults: 11%), increased appetite (adults: 11%)

Genitourinary: Ejaculation failure (adults: 42%, children and adolescents: 6%), impotence (adults: 20%), difficulty in micturition (adults: 14%; children and adolescents: 4%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor (adults: 54%; children and adolescents: 33%), myalgia (adults: 13%)

Ophthalmic: Visual disturbance (adults: 18%; children and adolescents: 7%)

Respiratory: Pharyngitis (adults: 14%), rhinitis (adults: 12%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Flushing (7% to 8%), chest pain (children and adolescents: 7%), orthostatic hypotension (children, adolescents, and adults: 4% to 6%), palpitations (4%), tachycardia (children, adolescents, and adults: 2% to 4%), ECG abnormality (2%), syncope (children and adolescents: 2%)

Central nervous system: Anxiety (adults: 9%; children and adolescents: 2%), paresthesia (adults: 9%), memory impairment (7% to 9%), sleep disorder (4% to 9%), twitching (adults: 7%), depression (adults: 5%), lack of concentration (adults: 5%), pain (3% to 4%), hypertonia (2% to 4%), abnormal dreams (adults: 3%), agitation (adults: 3%), migraine (adults: 3%), psychosomatic disorder (adults: 3%), speech disturbance (adults: 3%), yawning (adults: 3%), confusion (2% to 3%), aggressive behavior (children and adolescents: 2%), chills (adults: 2%), depersonalization (2%), emotional lability (adults: 2%), irritability (children and adolescents: 2%), paresis (children and adolescents: 2%), myasthenia (1% to 2%), panic attack (1% to 2%), abnormality in thinking (≥1%), vertigo (≥1%), seizure (≤1%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (4% to 8%), pruritus (adults: 6%), body odor (children and adolescents: 2%), dermatitis (adults: 2%), xeroderma (adults: 2%), urticaria (adults: 1%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Weight loss (children and adolescents: 7%), hot flash (2% to 5%), menstrual disease (adults: 4%), amenorrhea (adults: 1%)

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia (4% to 8%), vomiting (7%), flatulence (adults: 6%), aphthous stomatitis (children and adolescents: 2%), dysphagia (adults: 2%), gastrointestinal disease (adults: 2%), halitosis (children and adolescents: 2%), esophagitis (adults: 1%)

Genitourinary: Urinary retention (children and adolescents: 7%; adults: 2%), urinary tract infection (adults: 6%), urinary frequency (adults: 5%), lactation (nonpuerperal; adults: 4%), breast hypertrophy (adults: 2%), cystitis (adults: 2%), leukorrhea (adults: 2%), vaginitis (adults: 2%), mastalgia (adults: 1%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Purpuric disease (adults: 3%)

Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransferase (>3 x ULN: 3%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (>3 x ULN: 1%)

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction (children and adolescents: 7%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Asthenia (1% to 2%)

Ophthalmic: Abnormal lacrimation (adults: 3%), anisocoria (children and adolescents: 2%), blepharospasm (children and adolescents: 2%), mydriasis (adults: 2%), ocular allergy (children and adolescents: 2%), conjunctivitis (adults: 1%)

Otic: Tinnitus (4% to 6%)

Respiratory: Bronchospasm (children and adolescents: 7%; adults: 2%), sinusitis (adults: 6%), dyspnea (children and adolescents: 2%), epistaxis (adults: 2%), laryngitis (children and adolescents: 2%)

Miscellaneous: Fever (adults: 4%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal electroencephalogram, abnormal sensory symptoms, accommodation disturbance, acute myocardial infarction, agranulocytosis, albuminuria, alopecia, altered sense of smell, anemia, aneurysm, angle-closure glaucoma, anticholinergic syndrome, apathy, aphasia, apraxia, ataxia, atrial flutter, blepharitis, blood in stool, bone marrow depression, bradycardia, brain disease, breast fibroadenosis, bronchitis, bundle branch block, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, catatonic-like state, cellulitis, cerebral hemorrhage, cervical dysplasia, cheilitis, chloasma, cholinergic syndrome, choreoathetosis, chromatopsia, chronic enteritis, colitis, coma, conjunctival hemorrhage, cyanosis, deafness, dehydration, delirium, delusions, dental caries, dermal ulcer, diabetes mellitus, diplopia, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, duodenitis, dyskinesia, dystonia, eczema, edema, edema (oral), endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis, enlargement of salivary glands, epididymitis, erythematous rash, exophthalmos, exostosis, extrapyramidal reaction, extrasystoles, gastric dilation, gastric ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, glycosuria, goiter, gout, gynecomastia, hallucination, heart block, hematuria, hemiparesis, hemoptysis, hepatic injury (severe), hepatitis, hostility, hyperacusis, hypercholesterolemia, hyperesthesia, hyperglycemia, hyperkinetic muscle activity, hyperreflexia, hyperthermia, hyperthyroidism, hyperuricemia, hyperventilation, hypnogenic hallucinations, hypoesthesia, hypokalemia, hypokinesia, hyponatremia, hypothyroidism, hypoventilation, intestinal obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome, ischemic heart disease, keratitis, laryngismus, leukemoid reaction, leukopenia, local inflammation (uterine), lupus erythematous-like rash, lymphadenopathy, maculopapular rash, manic reaction, muscle spasm, mutism, myopathy, myositis, nephrolithiasis, neuralgia, neuropathy, nocturnal amblyopia, oculogyric crisis, oculomotor nerve paralysis, ovarian cyst, pancytopenia, paralytic ileus, paranoid ideation, peptic ulcer, periarteritis nodosa, peripheral ischemia, pharyngeal edema, phobia, photophobia, pneumonia, premature ejaculation, pseudolymphoma, psoriasis, psychosis, pyelonephritis, pyuria, rectal hemorrhage, renal cyst, schizophreniform disorder, scleritis, serotonin syndrome, SIADH, skin hypertrophy, skin photosensitivity, somnambulism, strabismus, stupor, suicidal ideation, suicidal tendencies, teeth clenching, thrombocytopenia, thrombophlebitis, tongue ulcer, torticollis, urinary incontinence, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage, vasospasm, ventricular tachycardia, visual field defect, voice disorder, withdrawal syndrome

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to clomipramine, other tricyclic agents, or any component of the formulation; use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders (concurrently or within 14 days of discontinuing either clomipramine or the MAOI); initiation of clomipramine in a patient receiving linezolid or intravenous methylene blue; use in a patient during the acute recovery phase of myocardial infarction.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Acute heart failure; hepatic impairment; renal impairment; history of blood dyscrasias; glaucoma.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [US Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults (18 to 24 years of age) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders; consider risk prior to prescribing. Short-term studies did not show an increased risk in patients >24 years of age and showed a decreased risk in patients ≥65 years. Closely monitor patients for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); the patient's family or caregiver should be instructed to closely observe the patient and communicate condition with health care provider. A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants should be dispensed with each prescription. Clomipramine is FDA approved for the treatment of OCD in children ≥10 years of age.

- The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

- Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their health care provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anticholinergic effects: May cause anticholinergic effects (constipation, xerostomia, blurred vision, urinary retention); use with caution in patients with decreased GI motility, paralytic ileus, urinary retention, BPH, xerostomia, or visual problems. The degree of anticholinergic blockade produced by this agent is very high relative to other antidepressants.

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving). The degree of sedation is very high relative to other antidepressants.

• Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (DRESS): DRESS has been reported with the use of clomipramine. If a severe, acute reaction such as DRESS occurs, discontinue clomipramine immediately.

• Fractures: Bone fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. Consider the possibility of a fragility fracture if an antidepressant-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising (Rabenda 2013; Rizzoli 2012).

• Hematologic effects: TCAs may rarely cause bone marrow suppression; monitor for any signs of infection and obtain CBC if symptoms (eg, fever, sore throat) evident.

• Hepatotoxicity: Increases in ALT/AST have occurred, including rare reports of severe hepatic injury (some fatal).

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation, which, in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors.

• Orthostatic hypotension: May cause orthostatic hypotension (risk is moderate relative to other antidepressants); use with caution in patients at risk of this effect or in those who would not tolerate transient hypotensive episodes (cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, hypovolemia, or concurrent medication use that may predispose to hypotension/bradycardia).

• Seizures: May cause seizures (relationship to dose and/or duration of therapy); do not exceed maximum doses. Use with caution in patients with a previous seizure disorder or condition predisposing to seizures such as brain damage, alcoholism, or concurrent therapy with other drugs that lower the seizure threshold.

• Serotonin syndrome: Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has occurred with serotonergic agents (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs), particularly when used in combination with other serotonergic agents (eg, triptans, TCAs, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, St. John's wort, tryptophan) or agents that impair metabolism of serotonin (eg, MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders, other MAO inhibitors [ie, linezolid and IV methylene blue]). Monitor patients closely for signs of serotonin syndrome such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures. Discontinue treatment (and any concomitant serotonergic agent) immediately if signs/symptoms arise.

• Sexual dysfunction: Has been associated with a high incidence of male sexual dysfunction.

• SIADH and hyponatremia: Antidepressant agents have been associated with the development of SIADH and hyponatremia, predominately in elderly patients. Other risk factors include volume depletion, concurrent use of diuretics, female gender, low body weight, and severe physical illness. TCAs have a lower risk for hyponatremia in comparison to SSRIs (De Picker 2014).

• Weight gain: May cause weight gain.

Disease-related concerns:

• Adrenal tumor: Use with caution in patients with tumors of the adrenal medulla (eg, pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma); may cause hypertensive crises.

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (including previous MI, stroke, tachycardia, or conduction abnormalities); the risk of conduction abnormalities with this agent is high relative to other antidepressants. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, clomipramine has been determined to be an agent that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: moderate) (AHA [Page 2016]).

• GI motility: Use with caution in patients with decreased GI motility (eg, paralytic ileus) as anticholinergic effects may exacerbate underlying condition.

• Hepatic impairment: Use caution in patients with hepatic impairment; clearance is decreased. Due to the narrow therapeutic index, use lower initial and maintenance doses of tricyclic antidepressants. Use caution in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to the risk of neurocognitive effects (Mullish 2014). Monitor hepatic transaminases periodically in patients with hepatic impairment.

• Mania/hypomania: May precipitate a shift to mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder. Monotherapy in patients with bipolar disorder should be avoided. Combination therapy with an antidepressant and a mood stabilizer may be effective for acute treatment of bipolar major depressive episodes, but should be avoided in acute mania or mixed episodes, as well as maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder due to the mood-destabilizing effects of antidepressants (CANMAT [Yatham 2018]; WFSBP [Grunze 2018]). Patients presenting with depressive symptoms should be screened for bipolar disorder. Clomipramine is not FDA approved for the treatment of bipolar depression.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation syndrome: Abrupt discontinuation or interruption of antidepressant therapy has been associated with a discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms arising may vary with antidepressant however commonly include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, light-headedness, dizziness, diminished appetite, sweating, chills, tremors, paresthesias, fatigue, somnolence, and sleep disturbances (eg, vivid dreams, insomnia). Less common symptoms include electric shock-like sensations, cardiac arrhythmias (more common with tricyclic antidepressants), myalgias, parkinsonism, arthralgias, and balance difficulties. Psychological symptoms may also emerge such as agitation, anxiety, akathisia, panic attacks, irritability, aggressiveness, worsening of mood, dysphoria, mood lability, hyperactivity, mania/hypomania, depersonalization, decreased concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, and memory or concentration difficulties. Greater risks for developing a discontinuation syndrome have been associated with antidepressants with shorter half-lives, longer durations of treatment, and abrupt discontinuation. For antidepressants of short or intermediate half-lives, symptoms may emerge within 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation and last 7 to 14 days (APA 2010; Fava 2006; Haddad 2001; Shelton 2001; Warner 2006).

• Electroconvulsive therapy: May increase the risks associated with electroconvulsive therapy; consider discontinuing, when possible, prior to ECT treatment.

• Surgery: Recommended by the manufacturer to discontinue prior to elective surgery; risks exist for drug interactions with anesthesia and for cardiac arrhythmias. However, definitive drug interactions have not been widely reported in the literature and continuation of tricyclic antidepressants is generally recommended as long as precautions are taken to reduce the significance of any adverse events that may occur. Norepinephrine should be considered the vasopressor of choice for TCA-related hypotension (Pass 2004). Therapy should not be abruptly discontinued in patients receiving high doses for prolonged periods.

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

Vomiting is two- to threefold more prevalent in children compared to adolescents and is more prevalent in adolescents compared to adults; to help minimize, divide the dose and give with food initially. Once titrated to maintenance therapy, can consolidate to once daily dosing at bedtime.

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP1A2 (major), CYP2C19 (minor), CYP2D6 (major), CYP3A4 (minor); Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Adagrasib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Adagrasib may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for increased antidepressant toxicities including QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Almotriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the vasopressor effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists. Management: Avoid, if possible, the use of alpha-/beta-agonists in patients receiving tricyclic antidepressants. If combined, monitor for evidence of increased pressor effects and consider reductions in initial dosages of the alpha-/beta-agonist. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alpha1-Agonists: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the therapeutic effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Alpha1-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alpha2-Agonists: Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. Management: Consider avoiding this combination. If used, monitor for decreased effects of the alpha2-agonist. Exercise great caution if discontinuing an alpha2-agonist in a patient receiving a TCA. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alpha2-Agonists (Ophthalmic): Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Alpha2-Agonists (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Altretamine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amantadine: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amifampridine: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of Amifampridine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When used at chemotherapy doses, hold blood pressure lowering medications for 24 hours before amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be held, do not administer amifostine. Use caution with radiotherapy doses of amifostine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amisulpride (Oral): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amisulpride (Oral): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Amphetamines. Tricyclic Antidepressants may potentiate the cardiovascular effects of Amphetamines. Amphetamines may enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased cardiovascular effects when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Anticholinergic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonergic agents may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, the risk of seizures may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Artemether and Lumefantrine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Aspirin: ClomiPRAMINE may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Barbiturates: May increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for decreased efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. Tricyclic antidepressant dose adjustments are likely required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Management: Use caution if coadministering blonanserin and CNS depressants; dose reduction of the other CNS depressant may be required. Strong CNS depressants should not be coadministered with blonanserin. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Blood Pressure Lowering Agents: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Botulinum Toxin-Containing Products: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brexanolone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Broccoli: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bromperidol: May diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine at lower doses in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

BuPROPion: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of BuPROPion. BuPROPion may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the tachycardic effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products. Blood pressure raising effects and drowsiness may also be enhanced. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the tachycardic effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Risk C: Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Chloral Betaine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cimetidine: May increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cimetropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Cimetropium. Risk X: Avoid combination

Citalopram: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Citalopram. Tricyclic Antidepressants may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Citalopram may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA and citalopram concentrations/effects. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Citalopram: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Citalopram may enhance the serotonergic effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Citalopram may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and serotonin syndrome when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the constipating effect of CloZAPine. CloZAPine may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination whenever possible. If combined, consider prophylactic laxatives and monitor closely for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal hypomotility, QTc prolongation, and serotonin syndrome. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cocaine (Topical): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyclobenzaprine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ClomiPRAMINE. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ClomiPRAMINE. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Do not use serotonergic agents (high risk) with dapoxetine or within 7 days of serotonergic agent discontinuation. Do not use dapoxetine within 14 days of monoamine oxidase inhibitor use. Dapoxetine labeling lists this combination as contraindicated. Risk X: Avoid combination

Daridorexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dose reduction of daridorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of daridorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of daridorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Desmopressin: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the hyponatremic effect of Desmopressin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DexmedeTOMIDine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of DexmedeTOMIDine. Management: Monitor for increased CNS depression during coadministration of dexmedetomidine and CNS depressants, and consider dose reductions of either agent to avoid excessive CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dexmethylphenidate-Methylphenidate: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dextromethorphan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Difelikefalin: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Domperidone: QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Domperidone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Dronedarone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dronedarone: QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DULoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. DULoxetine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations and effects if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eletriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eluxadoline: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Eluxadoline. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ergot Derivatives: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Escitalopram: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Escitalopram. Escitalopram may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations/effects if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Escitalopram: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Escitalopram may enhance the serotonergic effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Esketamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fenfluramine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fexinidazole: QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Fexinidazole. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Flunarizine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunarizine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Management: Reduce the dose of CNS depressants when combined with flunitrazepam and monitor patients for evidence of CNS depression (eg, sedation, respiratory depression). Use non-CNS depressant alternatives when available. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fluorouracil Products: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

FLUoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. FLUoxetine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations/effects if these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

FluvoxaMINE: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. FluvoxaMINE may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations/effects if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic): Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Gilteritinib. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Glucagon: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Glucagon. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation): Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). Risk X: Avoid combination

Glycopyrronium (Topical): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Guanethidine: Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Guanethidine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Haloperidol may enhance the serotonergic effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (SS/ST) or NMS when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation or SS/ST may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Herbal Products with Blood Pressure Lowering Effects: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider a decrease in the CNS depressant dose, as appropriate, when used together with hydroxyzine. Increase monitoring of signs/symptoms of CNS depression in any patient receiving hydroxyzine together with another CNS depressant. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products: Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products. Management: Discontinue all drugs that may inhibit or interfere with catecholamine transport or uptake for at least 5 biological half-lives before iobenguane administration. Do not administer these drugs until at least 7 days after each iobenguane dose. Risk X: Avoid combination

Iohexol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iohexol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iohexol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic antiseizure drugs. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Iomeprol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iomeprol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iomeprol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic antiseizure drugs. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Iopamidol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iopamidol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iopamidol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic antiseizure drugs. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ipratropium (Oral Inhalation): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Itopride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Itopride. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Kratom: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lasmiditan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lemborexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS depressant effects. Close monitoring for CNS depressant effects is necessary. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levoketoconazole: QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Levoketoconazole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Levosulpiride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Levosulpiride. Risk X: Avoid combination

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lisuride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Lofexidine. QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lofexidine. Management: Consider avoiding this combination when possible. Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lofexidine: Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lofexidine. Management: Consider avoiding this drug combination when possible. If concurrent administration is required, monitor blood pressure carefully at the beginning of the combined therapy and when either drug is stopped. Adjust the dosage accordingly. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lorcaserin (Withdrawn From US Market): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Lorcaserin (Withdrawn From US Market) may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations and effects if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce the usual dose of CNS depressants by 50% if starting methotrimeprazine until the dose of methotrimeprazine is stable. Monitor patient closely for evidence of CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Methylene Blue: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Metoclopramide: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Metoclopramide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Consider monitoring for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mianserin: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Minocycline (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mirabegron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mirabegron. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nefazodone: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Nefazodone. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nicorandil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroglycerin: Anticholinergic Agents may decrease the absorption of Nitroglycerin. Specifically, anticholinergic agents may decrease the dissolution of sublingual nitroglycerin tablets, possibly impairing or slowing nitroglycerin absorption. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and heart failure may be increased. Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Olopatadine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ondansetron: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Ondansetron may enhance the serotonergic effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and serotonin syndrome when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation or serotonin syndrome may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Agonists. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid agonists and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Oxatomide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Oxitriptan: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Oxitriptan. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk X: Avoid combination

Oxybate Salt Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Oxybate Salt Products. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, dose reduction or discontinuation of one or more CNS depressants (including the oxybate salt product) should be considered. Interrupt oxybate salt treatment during short-term opioid use Risk D: Consider therapy modification

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ozanimod: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Risk X: Avoid combination

PARoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. PARoxetine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations/effects if these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Peginterferon Alfa-2b: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pentamidine (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Piribedil: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pitolisant: Tricyclic Antidepressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Pitolisant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Potassium Chloride: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Chloride. Management: Patients on drugs with substantial anticholinergic effects should avoid using any solid oral dosage form of potassium chloride. Risk X: Avoid combination

Potassium Citrate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Citrate. Risk X: Avoid combination

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pramlintide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. These effects are specific to the GI tract. Risk X: Avoid combination

Procarbazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): ClomiPRAMINE may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of other QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the CNS depressant effect of other QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of other QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of other QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and serotonin syndrome when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of ClomiPRAMINE. QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of ClomiPRAMINE. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (SS/ST) or NMS when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation or SS/ST may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-Prolonging Inhalational Anesthetics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Ramosetron. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rasagiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Revefenacin: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Revefenacin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b. Specifically, the risk of neuropsychiatric adverse effects may be increased. Management: Avoid coadministration of ropeginterferon alfa-2b and other CNS depressants. If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor patients for neuropsychiatric adverse effects (eg, depression, suicidal ideation, aggression, mania). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Safinamide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Secretin: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Secretin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of anticholinergic agents and secretin. Discontinue anticholinergic agents at least 5 half-lives prior to administration of secretin. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Selegiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of ClomiPRAMINE. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Risk X: Avoid combination

Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous): Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and CNS depression when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk): Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk). Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity and CNS depression. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Serotonin 5-HT1D Receptor Agonists (Triptans): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sertindole: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Risk X: Avoid combination

Sertraline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Sertraline may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and increased TCA concentrations/effects if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of seizure or loss of consciousness may be increased in patients with significant sodium phosphate-induced fluid or electrolyte abnormalities. Risk C: Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. St John's Wort may decrease the serum concentration of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Syrian Rue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Anticholinergic Agents may increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thioridazine: ClomiPRAMINE may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Thioridazine. Thioridazine may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ClomiPRAMINE. Thioridazine may increase the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Thyroid Products may enhance the stimulatory effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tiotropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Tiotropium. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tobacco (Smoked): May decrease the serum concentration of ClomiPRAMINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Topiramate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Topiramate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of other Tricyclic Antidepressants. Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of other Tricyclic Antidepressants. Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of other Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor closely for increased TCA adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity, CNS depression, and anticholinergic effects. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triptorelin: Hyperprolactinemic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Triptorelin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Umeclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Risk X: Avoid combination

Valerian: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Valproate Products: May increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vasopressin: Drugs Suspected of Causing SIADH may enhance the therapeutic effect of Vasopressin. Specifically, the pressor and antidiuretic effects of vasopressin may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Vilazodone. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vortioxetine: Tricyclic Antidepressants may enhance the serotonergic effect of Vortioxetine. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pregnancy Considerations

Clomipramine and its metabolite desmethylclomipramine cross the placenta and can be detected in cord blood and neonatal serum at birth (Loughhead 2006; ter Horst 2012). Data from five newborns found the half-life for clomipramine in the neonate to be 42 ± 16 hours following in utero exposure. Serum concentrations were not found to correlate to withdrawal symptoms (ter Horst 2012). Withdrawal symptoms (including jitteriness, tremor, and seizures) have been observed in neonates whose mothers took clomipramine up to delivery.

The ACOG recommends that therapy for depression during pregnancy be individualized; treatment should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary health care provider, and pediatrician (ACOG 2008). According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the risks of medication treatment should be weighed against other treatment options and untreated depression. For women who discontinue antidepressant medications during pregnancy and who may be at high risk for postpartum depression, the medications can be restarted following delivery (APA 2010). Treatment algorithms have been developed by the ACOG and the APA for the management of depression in women prior to conception and during pregnancy (Yonkers 2009).

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to clomipramine is ongoing. Pregnant women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants (NPRAD). Women 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Breastfeeding Considerations

Clomipramine is present in breast milk. Based on information from three mother-infant pairs, following maternal use of clomipramine 75 to 150 mg/day, the estimated exposure to the breastfeeding infant would be 0.4% to 4% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose. Adverse events have not been reported in breastfeeding infants (information from seven cases). Infants should be monitored for signs of adverse events; routine monitoring of infant serum concentrations is not recommended (Fortinguerra 2009). Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfeeding infant, the decision to continue or discontinue breastfeeding during therapy should take into account the risk of exposure to the infant and the benefits of treatment to the mother.

Monitoring Parameters

Serum sodium in at-risk populations (as clinically indicated) (De Picker 2014); pulse rate and blood pressure prior to and during therapy; ECG/cardiac status in older adults and patients with cardiac disease; suicidal ideation (especially at the beginning of therapy, after initiation, or when doses are increased or decreased); signs/symptoms of serotonin syndrome; hepatic transaminases (periodically during therapy in patients with preexisting hepatic impairment); electrolyte panel (to assess risk of conduction abnormalities).

Reference Range

Depression:

Timing of serum samples: Draw trough just before next dose

Therapeutic reference range: 230 to 450 ng/mL (as clomipramine PLUS norclomipramine)

Laboratory alert level: 450 ng/mL (Hiemke 2018)

Mechanism of Action

Clomipramine appears to affect serotonin uptake while its active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine, affects norepinephrine uptake

Pharmacokinetics

Onset of action:

Anxiety disorders (obsessive-compulsive, panic disorder): Initial effects may be observed within 2 weeks of treatment, with continued improvements through 4 to 6 weeks (Varigonda 2016; WFSBP [Bandelow 2012]); some experts suggest up to 12 weeks of treatment may be necessary for response, particularly in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (BAP [Baldwin 2014]; Katzman 2014; WFSBP [Bandelow 2012]).

Depression: Initial effects may be observed within 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, with continued improvements through 4 to 6 weeks (Papakostas 2006; Posternak 2005; Szegedi 2009).

Duration of action: 1 to 2 days.

Absorption: Rapid.

Distribution: Distributes into CSF and brain, active metabolite (desmethylclomipramine) also distributes into CSF with average CSF to plasma ratio: 2.6.

Protein binding: 97%, primarily to albumin.

Metabolism: Hepatic to desmethylclomipramine (DMI; active); extensive first-pass effect; metabolites undergo glucuronide conjugation; metabolism of clomipramine and DMI may be capacity limited (ie, may display nonlinear pharmacokinetics); with multiple dosing, plasma concentrations of DMI are greater than clomipramine.

Bioavailability: 50% (Hiemke 2018).

Half-life elimination: Adults (following a 150 mg dose): Clomipramine 19 to 37 hours (mean: 32 hours); DMI: 54 to 77 hours (mean: 69 hours).

Time to peak, plasma: 2 to 6 hours.

Excretion: Urine (50% to 60%; 0.8% to 1.3% as parent drug and active metabolite (combined amount); feces (24% to 32%).

Pricing: US

Capsules (Anafranil Oral)

25 mg (per each): $42.36

50 mg (per each): $43.16

75 mg (per each): $43.96

Capsules (clomiPRAMINE HCl Oral)

25 mg (per each): $1.13 - $11.24

50 mg (per each): $1.13 - $11.24

75 mg (per each): $1.50 - $11.24

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Anafranil (AE, AR, AT, AU, BB, BD, BE, BF, BG, BH, BJ, BM, BR, BS, BZ, CH, CI, CL, CN, CO, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EC, EE, ES, ET, FI, FR, GH, GM, GN, GR, GY, HK, HN, HR, HU, IE, IL, IN, IQ, IR, IS, IT, JM, JO, KE, KW, LB, LK, LR, LT, LU, LV, LY, MA, ML, MR, MT, MU, MW, MX, NE, NG, NL, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PK, PL, PT, PY, QA, RO, RU, SA, SC, SD, SE, SI, SK, SL, SN, SR, SY, TH, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UY, VE, VN, YE, ZA, ZM, ZW);
  • Anafranil 25 (ID);
  • Anafranil Retard (DK, FI, LU, NL, SE);
  • Anafranil SR (BH, LB, LV, MY, NZ, SG);
  • Anafranil SR 75 (IL);
  • Anafronil (EG);
  • Anapramine (EG);
  • Clofranil (IN, LK, PH);
  • Clojac (KR);
  • Clomi (TW);
  • Clomidep (VN);
  • Clonil (LK);
  • Clopran (TW);
  • Clorimax (PY);
  • Condencia (KR);
  • Coslin (TW);
  • Depranil (SG);
  • Equinorm (BF, BJ, CI, ET, GH, GM, GN, KE, LR, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, SC, SD, SL, SN, TN, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW);
  • Gromin (KR);
  • Hydiphen (DE);
  • Maronil (IL);
  • Nenoma (KR);
  • Placil (AU);
  • Supranil (EG);
  • Timex (BD);
  • Trianil (JO);
  • Zoiral (TR)


For country code abbreviations (show table)
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